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Jožef Šimenko and Vedran Hadžić

Purpose: This study investigates bilateral performance with the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) and its associations with competition performance (CP) and competition volume (CV) in judo. Methods: The SJFT compared movement patterns of the dominant (D) and nondominant (ND) sides on a sample of 27 youth judoka. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to determine differences in SJFT execution to the D and ND side, and for associations, the Pearson correlation was used (P < .05). Results: The total number of throws is significantly higher on the D side, with better performance in the final SJFT index. The CP showed positive correlations with the D side of SJFT executions in the second part of SJFT (P = .042) and the total number of throws (P = .036). On the ND side, the CP showed a positive correlation with the second part of the SJFT (P = .014), a negative correlation with the third part of the SJFT (P = .035), and a positive correlation in the total number of throws (P = .027). CV shows significant correlations with all parameters of the SJFT in the D and ND sides, with stronger correlations on the ND side. Conclusions: The study presents significantly better performance in judokas’ D side in SJFT. Associations between CP and CV with the SJFT were significant in connection to both body sides. It highlights the importance of bilateral movement development and good execution of the throwing techniques for the D and ND body sides of youth judoka to achieve greater CP all year round.

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Felipe Guimarães Teixeira, Paulo Tadeu Cardozo Ribeiro Rosa, Roger Gomes Tavares Mello, and Jurandir Nadal

Purpose: The study aimed to identify the variables that differentiate judo athletes at national and regional levels. Multivariable analysis was applied to biomechanical, anthropometric, and Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) data. Method: Forty-two male judo athletes from 2 competitive groups (14 national and 28 state levels) performed the following measurements and tests: (1) skinfold thickness, (2) circumference, (3) bone width, (4) longitudinal length, (5) stabilometric tests, (6) dynamometric tests, and (7) SJFT. The variables with significant differences in the Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used in stepwise logistic regression to select those that better separate the groups. The authors considered models with a maximum of 3 variables to avoid overfitting. They used 7-fold cross validation to calculate optimism-corrected measures of model performance. Results: The 3 variables that best differentiated the groups were the epicondylar humerus width, the total number of throws on the SJFT, and the stabilometric mean velocity of the center of pressure in the mediolateral direction. The area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve for the model (based on 7-fold cross validation) was 0.95. Conclusion: This study suggests that a reduced set of anthropometric, biomechanical, and SJFT variables can differentiate judo athlete’s levels.

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Alannah K.A. McKay, Trent Stellingwerff, Ella S. Smith, David T. Martin, Iñigo Mujika, Vicky L. Goosey-Tolfrey, Jeremy Sheppard, and Louise M. Burke

Throughout the sport-science and sports-medicine literature, the term “elite” subjects might be one of the most overused and ill-defined terms. Currently, there is no common perspective or terminology to characterize the caliber and training status of an individual or cohort. This paper presents a 6-tiered Participant Classification Framework whereby all individuals across a spectrum of exercise backgrounds and athletic abilities can be classified. The Participant Classification Framework uses training volume and performance metrics to classify a participant to one of the following: Tier 0: Sedentary; Tier 1: Recreationally Active; Tier 2: Trained/Developmental; Tier 3: Highly Trained/National Level; Tier 4: Elite/International Level; or Tier 5: World Class. We suggest the Participant Classification Framework can be used to classify participants both prospectively (as part of study participant recruitment) and retrospectively (during systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses). Discussion around how the Participant Classification Framework can be tailored toward different sports, athletes, and/or events has occurred, and sport-specific examples provided. Additional nuances such as depth of sport participation, nationality differences, and gender parity within a sport are all discussed. Finally, chronological age with reference to the junior and masters athlete, as well as the Paralympic athlete, and their inclusion within the Participant Classification Framework has also been considered. It is our intention that this framework be widely implemented to systematically classify participants in research featuring exercise, sport, performance, health, and/or fitness outcomes going forward, providing the much-needed uniformity to classification practices.

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Pascale Young, Samantha K. Gill, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe, Stephanie Gaskell, Isabella Russo, and Louise M. Burke

Strenuous exercise is synonymous with disturbing gastrointestinal integrity and function, subsequently prompting systemic immune responses and exercise-associated gastrointestinal symptoms, a condition established as “exercise-induced gastrointestinal syndrome.” When exercise stress and aligned exacerbation factors (i.e., extrinsic and intrinsic) are of substantial magnitude, these exercise-associated gastrointestinal perturbations can cause performance decrements and health implications of clinical significance. This potentially explains the exponential growth in exploratory, mechanistic, and interventional research in exercise gastroenterology to understand, accurately measure and interpret, and prevent or attenuate the performance debilitating and health consequences of exercise-induced gastrointestinal syndrome. Considering the recent advancement in exercise gastroenterology research, it has been highlighted that published literature in the area is consistently affected by substantial experimental limitations that may affect the accuracy of translating study outcomes into practical application/s and/or design of future research. This perspective methodological review attempts to highlight these concerns and provides guidance to improve the validity, reliability, and robustness of the next generation of exercise gastroenterology research. These methodological concerns include participant screening and description, exertional and exertional heat stress load, dietary control, hydration status, food and fluid provisions, circadian variation, biological sex differences, comprehensive assessment of established markers of exercise-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, validity of gastrointestinal symptoms assessment tool, and data reporting and presentation. Standardized experimental procedures are needed for the accurate interpretation of research findings, avoiding misinterpreted (e.g., pathological relevance of response magnitude) and overstated conclusions (e.g., clinical and practical relevance of intervention research outcomes), which will support more accurate translation into safe practice guidelines.

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Phillip Ward, Fatih Dervent, Erhan Devrilmez, Peter Iserbyt, Insook Kim, Bomna Ko, José A. Santiago, Emi Tsuda, and Xiuye Xie

Background: Teacher education is a complex endeavor designed to prepare preservice teachers for the task of teaching physical education to students in K–12 schools. Yet, there is widespread criticism of teacher education outcomes within the United States and around the world. Consequently, teacher educators have been increasingly called upon to use evidence-based approaches in teacher education. Purpose: In this article, we discuss a teacher education reform called practice-based teacher education from macro and micro perspectives. Discussion: Practice-based teacher education emphasizes a curriculum that is focused on relevance defined in terms of what a teacher needs to know and do to be able to teach physical education. Evidence for curricular changes to physical education teacher education and to the content and pedagogies of methods and content classes are presented. We conclude with a discussion of how practice-based teacher education can address social injustice.

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Sara B. Flory, Craigory V. Nieman, and Rebecca C. Wylie

This study examines the culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy of graduates from a Physical Education Teacher Education program focused on social justice issues. We examined barriers to culturally responsive teaching and areas where alumni felt least efficacious. Forty-three graduates of a Physical Education Teacher Education program completed the culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy scale and demographic questions via Qualtrics, and 13 completed a 45- to 60-min interview regarding urban teaching experience. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and comparative data analysis to determine areas of lower self-efficacy. Two major themes emerged from this data: (a) misalignment between expectations and reality and (b) lack of practical experiences with communication. Specific coursework, training, and supports need to be implemented to address the mismatch between participants’ lived experiences and their daily challenges upon induction. Physical Education Teacher Education programs need to critically examine the experiences preservice teachers have interacting and communicating with English language learners and their caregivers prior to induction.

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Fatih Dervent, Weidong Li, Nazım Nayır, and Erhan Devrilmez

Purpose: To examine the effects of the Situated Game Teaching through Set Plays (SGTSP) curricular model on secondary school students’ soccer skills and game performance during a 10-lesson unit. Methods: A quasi-experimental design with/without a repeated measure was used to examine the effectiveness of the SGTSP model in comparison with a technique-focused approach. A convenient sample of 27 sixth graders from two classes participated in this study. Classes were randomly assigned to conditions. Data were collected from soccer skill tests and game performance coding instrument. Analysis of variance with or without a repeated measure was conducted to analyze the data. Results: Participants’ ball controlling skill significantly improved for both groups over time. Their shooting and dribbling skills did not improve for both groups over time. No statistical differences were found in participants’ changes in ball controlling, shooting, and dribbling skills over time between the two conditions. Participants in the SGTSP condition had better offensive off the ball, offensive with the ball, overall offensive decision making, and overall decision making than those in the comparison condition. Conclusions: The findings provided initial evidence supporting the effectiveness of the SGTSP model on developing students’ decision making in the game plays. Participants taught by SGTSP had similar skill performance as those taught by a technique-focused approach.

Open access

Sérgio M. Querido, Régis Radaelli, João Brito, João R. Vaz, and Sandro R. Freitas

Background: Sleep, nutrition, active recovery, cold-water immersion, and massage were recently reported as the most used postmatch recovery methods in professional football. However, the recommendations concerning the effect of these methods remain unclear. Purpose: To systematically review the literature regarding the effectiveness of the most common recovery methods applied to male and female football players (or other team sports) 72 hours postmatches and to provide graded recommendations for their use. Methods: A systematic search of the literature was performed, and the level of evidence of randomized and nonrandomized studies was classified as 1 or 2, respectively, with additional ++, +, and − classification according to the quality of the study and risk of bias. Graded recommendations were provided regarding the effectiveness of recovery methods for physical, physiological, and perceptive variables. Results: From the 3472 articles identified, 39 met the inclusion criteria for analysis. The studies’ levels of evidence varied among methods (sleep: 2+ to 1++; nutrition: 2− to 1+; cold-water immersion: 2− to 1++; active recovery: 2− to 1+; and massage: 1− to 1+). Different graded recommendations were attributed, and none of them favored the effective use of recovery methods for physiological and physical parameters, whereas massage and cold-water immersion were recommended as beneficial for perceptive variables. Conclusions: Cold-water immersion and massage can be recommended to recover up to 72 hours postmatch at a perceptive level. However, there is a current need for high-quality research that identifies effective recovery strategies that enhance recovery at the physical and physiological levels.

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QinLong Li, Charles J. Steward, Tom Cullen, Kaixuan Che, and Yue Zhou

Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of heart-rate variability (HRV) biofeedback in improving autonomic function, mood, and sleep in elite bobsleigh athletes. Methods: Eight Chinese Winter Olympic bobsleigh athletes (age: 24 [2] y, body mass: 89 [15] kg, and height: 184 [5] cm) completed a randomized crossover study with and without HRV biofeedback before a single night’s sleep. HRV biofeedback was provided 35 minutes prior to bedtime in the experimental condition. The assessment of HRV took place 45 and 10 minutes before bedtime. The Profile of Mood States questionnaire was completed 50 and 15 minutes prior to bedtime. Sleep duration and quality were measured through an air-mattress sleep-monitoring system. Results: Sleep efficiency (P = .020; F = 7.831; CI, 0.008 to 0.072) and the percentage of deep sleep duration increased (P = .013; F = 10.875; CI, 0.006 to 0.035), while the percentage of light sleep decreased (P = .034; F = 6.893; CI, −0.038 to −0.002). Presleep HRV biofeedback increased parasympathetic and decreased sympathetic activity. Mood states of anger (P = .006, F = 7.573), panic (P = .031, F = 4.288), tension (P = .011, F = 6.284), depression (P = .010, F = 6.016), fatigue (P = .000, F = 16.901), and total mood disturbance (P = .001, F = 11.225) were reduced before sleep. Conclusion: Presleep HRV biofeedback improved some measures of autonomic function, mood, and sleep quality in Chinese Olympic bobsleigh athletes. Presleep HRV biofeedback provides a practical strategy that may help reduce sleep disturbances during periods of training and competition.

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Irene Rocamora, Ashley Casey, Sixto González-Víllora, and Natalia María Arias-Palencia

Purpose: To understand how a season of sport education (SE) and a hybrid SE and cooperative learning season impacted on elementary school students’ physical activity levels and motivation and to examine possible differences according to gender. Method: A total of 97 fourth- to fifth-grade students in four intact classes participated in a 14-lesson handball season. Results: Students in SE had higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels than the hybrid season. When sorted by gender, boys were significantly more active than girls in both interventions. However, students in the hybrid season reported higher levels of motivation than participants in the SE season, especially for intrinsic motivation. Conclusion: The hybridization of models positively affected students’ motivation in PE, while the reverse is true of SE with regard to physical activity levels.