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Akira Asada and Yong Jae Ko

Sport socialization research has revealed that a community is one of the most influential socializing agents. However, little is known about which aspects of a community promote sport socialization and how it occurs. In the current research, we identified and conceptualized two key factors characterizing sports teams’ fan communities, relative size and entitativity, and discussed how these factors influence sport socialization and its outcomes. First, we developed the model of community influence on sport socialization to depict the effects of relative size and entitativity on people’s perceptions and behaviors at the initial stage of their sport socialization. Second, we proposed the model of community influence on the outcomes of sport socialization, which explains how relative size and entitativity contribute to the outcomes of sport socialization.

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Sarah E. Roth, Monique Gill, Alec M. Chan-Golston, Lindsay N. Rice, Catherine M. Crespi, Deborah Koniak-Griffin and Michael L. Prelip

Purpose: This study examines the effects of the middle school SPARK physical education (PE) curriculum on predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors for physical activity (PA) as well as self-reported PA in a predominantly low-income, Latinx student population in Los Angeles, CA. Methods: Data were collected from 3763 students of seventh and eighth grades at 2 time points at the 16 middle schools enrolled in the study. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to assess intervention effects on PA attitudes, PE enjoyment, FitnessGram passing, daily PA, and muscle-strengthening PA, controlling for demographic variables. Results: Although there was no detectable intervention effect on increasing the number of students exercising 60 minutes per day, there was a negative intervention effect detected for muscle-strengthening exercises. A significant positive intervention effect was detected for both PE enjoyment and FitnessGram passing. Deeper analysis of these findings revealed that the positive effect on PE enjoyment occurred only among male students. Conclusion: The SPARK curriculum had mixed effects on students’ PA behavior as well as predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors for PA. Incorporating student perspectives into the evaluation of intervention efforts to promote PA can facilitate a better understanding of the ways in which these efforts influence PA behaviors and its determinants.

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Sophie Knights, Emma Sherry, Mandy Ruddock-Hudson and Paul O’Halloran

The purpose of this research was to explore the experience of transition and life after sport in a group of retired professional athletes. A total of 45 retired athletes from three national football leagues took part in semistructured interviews. Two overarching themes emerged from the data analysis: (a) preparing for transition and planning for retirement and (b) supportive environment. For athletes in this study, four main factors were identified as critical to promoting a positive transition. The nature of the transition also directly affected athletes’ experience of retirement from sport and, thus, their experience of flourishing in life after sport. The majority of participants in this study indicated that they lacked support from their sporting club and governing bodies both during their transition and in retirement. Planning for retirement and preparing for the future positively affected their ability to flourish in retirement. Recommendations for sport managers and athlete support services are provided.

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Jesudas E. Menon, David J. Stensel, Keith Tolfrey and Stephen F. Burns

Purpose: This study examined how manipulating meal frequency, with and without exercise, affects postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG). Methods: Fourteen sedentary men completed four 2-day trials in a noncounterbalanced random cross-over order: (1) consumption of 1 large high-fat milkshake without exercise (1-CON), (2) consumption of 2 smaller high-fat milkshakes without exercise (2-CON), (3) consumption of 1 large high-fat milkshake with exercise (1-EX), and (4) consumption of 2 small high-fat milkshakes with exercise (2-EX)—total energy intake was standardized across trials. On day 1, participants rested (1-CON and 2-CON) or walked briskly for 60 minutes (1-EX and 2-EX). On day 2, participants consumed either a single large high-fat milkshake (75% fat; 1-CON and 1-EX) for breakfast or 2 smaller isoenergetic milkshakes (2-CON and 2-EX) for breakfast and lunch. Plasma TAG were measured fasting and for 7 hours after breakfast. Results: Peak incremental TAG was 30% lower on 2-EX than 1-CON (P = .04, d = 0.38). Postprandial TAG increased more rapidly in the first 4 hours in 1-CON than other trials; but at 6 hours, TAG was exaggerated in 2-CON compared with 1-CON. Conclusions: Increasing meal frequency after exercise, without altering overall fat intake, attenuates postprandial TAG.

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Bob Heere, Henry Wear, Adam Jones, Tim Breitbarth, Xiaoyan Xing, Juan Luis Paramio Salcines, Masayuki Yoshida and Inge Derom

The purpose of this study is to examine how effective the international promotion of a sport event is on changing the destination image prior to the event if the sport event lacks global popularity. The authors conducted a quasi-experimental posttest research design, in which they used promotional information of a Tour de France stage to manipulate the destination image nonvisitors (N = 3,505) from nine different nations have of the hosting city, 5 months prior to the actual event. Results show that treating the international market as a homogeneous entity might be deceptive, as the effect of the event was different from nation to nation, pending on the popularity of the event or sport in the specific nation, and whether the nation itself offered similar events.

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Colin B. Shore, Gill Hubbard, Trish Gorely, Robert Polson, Angus Hunter and Stuart D. Galloway

Background: Exercise referral schemes (ERS) are prescribed programs to tackle physical inactivity and associated noncommunicable disease. Inconsistencies in reporting, recording, and delivering ERS make it challenging to identify what works, why, and for whom. Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guided this narrative review of reviews. Electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews of ERS. Inclusion criteria and quality assessed through A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR). Data on uptake, attendance, and adherence were extracted. Results: Eleven reviews met inclusion criteria. AMSTAR quality was medium. Uptake ranged between 35% and 81%. Groups more likely to take up ERS included (1) females and (2) older adults. Attendance ranged from 12% to 49%. Men were more likely to attend ERS. Effect of medical diagnosis upon uptake and attendance was inconsistent. Exercises prescribed were unreported; therefore, adherence to exercise prescriptions was unreported. The influence of theoretically informed approaches on uptake, attendance, and adherence was generally lacking; however, self-determination, peer support, and supervision were reported as influencing attendance. Conclusions: There was insufficient reporting across studies about uptake, attendance, and adherence. Complex interventions such as ERS require consistent definitions, recording, and reporting of these key facets, but this is not evident from the existing literature.

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Hebe Schaillée, Ramón Spaaij, Ruth Jeanes and Marc Theeboom

Funding bodies seek to promote scientific research that has a social or economic impact beyond academia, including in sport management. Knowledge translation in sport management remains largely implicit and is yet to be fully understood. This study examines how knowledge translation in sport management can be conceptualized and fostered. The authors draw on a comparative analysis of coproduced research projects in Belgium and Australia to identify the strategic, cognitive, and logistic translation practices that researchers adopt, as well as enablers and constraints that affect knowledge translation. The findings show ways in which knowledge translation may be facilitated and supported, such as codesign, boundary spanning, adaptation of research products, and linkage and exchange activities. The findings reveal individual, organizational, and external constraints that need to be recognized and, where possible, managed.

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Chen Chen and Daniel S. Mason

This study discusses how an epistemological shift—explicitly acknowledging the embedded position of the sport management field in settler colonial societies and its effect on knowledge production therein—is necessary for the field to mobilize social change that problematizes and challenges ongoing settler colonialism. Reviewing previous research examining social change in sport management, the authors then argue that settler colonialism, a condition that underlies some nation-states that produce leading sport management knowledge—the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand—should no longer remain invisible in our research. Drawing upon Indigenous Studies, Settler Colonial Studies, and sport-related work from other social science disciplines, the authors contextualize the position of non-Indigenous scholars and then address three questions that highlight the relevance of settler colonialism to sport management research. They conclude with a discussion on possible ways in which settler colonialism can be visibilized and thus challenged by non-Indigenous scholars.

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Daniela Rodrigues, Cristina Padez and Aristides M. Machado-Rodrigues

Background: Identifying parental perceived barriers might contribute to strategies to promote physical activity in children. This study aimed to observe parental perceived barriers for 6- to 10-year-old children’s participation in organized sports and understand to what extent the socioeconomic status, the place of residence, and children’s sex, age, and sport participation affect those perceived barriers. Methods: Data were collected from 834 parents of 6- to 10-year-old children living in the Portuguese Midlands, using a multiple-choice questionnaire. Parents reported the perceived barriers to children’s sport activities, such as time, health, transportation, costs, safety, facilities, weather, tiredness, and lack of interest. Children’s and sociodemographic characteristics were also collected. Results: Time and costs were the most reported barriers by parents. Barriers to access were mostly reported by parents of girls and younger children, parents of inactive children, and families living in an urban setting and in socioeconomic disadvantage. Perceived barriers differed according to both children’s and sociodemographic characteristics, highlighting the need to reduce costs and increase the variety of sports/facilities, particularly in families with girls, younger children, and those with lower incomes from more urbanized areas. Conclusions: The present findings should be considered in future planning and interventions to effectively promote physical activity in children.

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Sasha A. Fleary, Robin Mehl and Claudio Nigg

Background: Health behaviors in childhood and adolescence are implicated in health behaviors and chronic disease risk in adulthood for the majority of the US population. However, little is known about these relationships in Hawaiian youth. This study investigated the extent to which childhood physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable consumption behaviors predicted later behaviors across a 10-year period in Hawaiian youth. Methods: Three cohorts of fourth- to sixth-grade students who participated in an elementary after-school program (Fun 5) provided baseline data (Y1—data collected between 2003 and 2007), 5-year (Y5—data collected between 2008 and 2012), and 10-year (Y10—data collected between 2013 and 2017) follow-up surveys. Demographic, PA, and fruit and vegetable consumption measures were completed at all 3 time points. Bivariate and multiple regressions were computed in 2018. Results: Y1 and Y5 behavior predicted PA in young adulthood. For fruit and vegetable consumption, Y1 behavior predicted Y5 behavior but not Y10 behavior, and Y5 behavior predicted Y10 behaviors. Conclusions: Similar to mainland US youth, it is important to address PA and nutrition early in the life span for Hawaiian youth to increase long-term preventive health behaviors and reduce long-term chronic disease risk.