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Inter-Brand, -Dynamic Range, and -Sampling Rate Comparability of Raw Accelerometer Data as Used in Physical Behavior Research

Annelinde Lettink, Wessel N. van Wieringen, Teatske M. Altenburg, Mai J.M. Chinapaw, and Vincent T. van Hees

Objective: Previous studies that looked at comparability of accelerometer data focused on epoch or recording level comparability. Our study aims to provide insight into the comparability at raw data level. Methods: We performed five experiments with accelerometers attached to a mechanical shaker machine applying movement along a single axis in the horizontal plane. In each experiment, a 1-min no-movement condition was followed by nineteen 2-min shaker frequency conditions (30–250 rpm). We analyzed accelerometer data from Axivity, ActiGraph, GENEActiv, MOX, and activPAL devices. Comparability between commonly used brands and dynamic ranges was assessed in the frequency domain with power spectra and in the time domain with maximum lagged cross-correlation analyses. The influence of sampling rate on magnitude of acceleration across brands was explored visually. All data were published open access. Results: Magnitude of noise in rest was highest in MOX and lowest in ActiGraph. The signal mean power spectral density was equal between brands at low shaker frequency conditions (<3.13 Hz) and between dynamic ranges within the Axivity brand at all shaker frequency conditions. In contrast, the cross-correlation coefficients between time series across brands and dynamic ranges were higher at higher shaking frequencies. Sampling rate affected the magnitude of acceleration most in Axivity and least in GENEActiv. Conclusions: The comparability of raw acceleration signals between brands and/or sampling rates depends on the type of movement. These findings aid a more fundamental understanding and anticipation of differences in behavior estimates between different implementations of raw accelerometry.

Free access

Measuring Sleep Among Cancer Survivors: Accelerometer Measures Across Days and Agreement Between Accelerometer and Self-Reported Measures

Sidney M. Donzella, Alla Sikorski, Kimberly E. Lind, Meghan B. Skiba, Cynthia A. Thomson, and Tracy E. Crane

Background: The associations between subjective (self-reported) and objective (actigraphy) sleep measurements are not well documented among survivors of cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine actigraphy measurements across days and the associations of two self-reported sleep measures with actigraphy-measured sleep measures. Methods: Sleep data were collected using self-reported sleep diary, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and hip-worn actigraphy at baseline for a subsample participating in the Lifestyle Intervention for oVarian cancer Enhanced Survival (N = 516) randomized controlled trial. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to evaluate consistency of actigraphy sleep measures across days of wear and associations of sleep diary with actigraphy for total sleep time (TST), time asleep, and time awake. Bland–Altman plots were used to assess the associations of sleep duration and sleep efficiency derived from Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and actigraphy. Results: Participants were aged 60.3 years (SD 9.3 years). For TST, the associations were strongest after 3 weekdays of consecutive actigraphy wear (ICC = .43 95% CI [.35, .51]), and actigraphy-measured daily TST was longest (617, SD 135 min) compared with self-reported measures. Sleep diary versus actigraphy associations for TST, time asleep, and time awake were weak to moderate. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index versus actigraphy association was weak for all sleep constructs. Conclusion: The strength of association between self-reported and actigraphy measures of sleep ranged from weak to very strong, depending on the sleep construct. Impact: Results highlight the importance of selecting an appropriate measurement tool for estimating individual sleep constructs among survivors of cancer.

Restricted access

Unpacking Ableism: Perspectives From the Chilean Physical Education Discourse

Fabián Arroyo-Rojas

In this article, I reflect on the presence of ableism in the discourse surrounding physical education in Chile. The purpose of this article was to highlight three areas where ableism is ingrained. First, I examined historical actions within the Chilean physical education system that prioritize White ideals and able-bodied individuals. Second, I examined curriculum and evaluation recommendations that overlook the unique needs of disabled students. Finally, I critique pedagogical practices that, under the guise of inclusion, implicitly strive to meet normative levels of functionality. In conclusion, ableism intersects with colonialism in the Global South, specifically Latin America, leading to unreasonable expectations for all students, including disabled students, in the realm of physical education.

Open access

Bidirectional Relationship Over Time Between Body Mass Index and Fundamental Movement Skill Domains Measured by a Process-Oriented Method in Childhood: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

Maria Kasanen, Arto Laukkanen, Donna Niemistö, Asko Tolvanen, Francisco Ortega, and Arja Sääkslahti

The worldwide increase in childhood overweight and obesity underscores the need to study variables like fundamental movement skill (FMS) levels from early childhood. This study investigated the bidirectional longitudinal relationship between body mass index (BMI) and process-oriented FMSs, including locomotor skills and object control skills in 675 Finnish children, aged 3–8 years at baseline (50.5% female, mean age 5.5 years) over 3 years. Standardized BMI-for-age SD scores (BMI SDS z-scores) followed Finnish national standards. The FMS assessment comprised four subtests from the Test of Gross Motor Development, third edition. Age-adjusted standardized residuals of FMS or skill domains and BMI SDS z-scores were used in a two-level, cross-classified, cross-lagged regression analysis, accounting for gender, and baseline value of the dependent variables. The results showed no statistically significant longitudinal relationship between BMI and FMS or its skill domains for either gender in either direction. This suggests that BMI and process-oriented FMS, encompassing locomotor skill and object control skill, develop independently, possibly influenced by unexplored variables. These findings contradict earlier results based on product-oriented measurements, which may include a physical capacity component. The outcomes further underscore the importance of monitoring weight status from early childhood, given its significant association with later-life weight conditions.

Free access

Coordination Dynamics in Motor Learning: Acquisition and Adaptation in a Serial Stimulus Tracking Task

Matheus M. Pacheco, Natália F.A. Ambrósio, Fernando G. Santos, Go Tani, and Luciano Basso

The dynamics of mastering the degrees of freedom in motor learning are still far from being understood. The present work explored coordination dynamics in a redundant task, relating it to performance and adaptation in a serial stimulus tracking task. One hundred and sixty-three children (10–14 years of age) continuously responded to sequential stimuli (containing five stimuli) by pressing the respective sensors before the next stimulus presentation. Participants performed 120 trials with a fixed sequence (4–2–5–3–1) and a fixed interstimuli interval (800 ms) to learn the first pattern (practice phase). Then, a changed sequence (4–2–5–1–3) with a shorter interval (700 ms) was presented for 40 trials (adaptation phase). To measure coordination and its change, we calculated the correlation matrix of the stimulus–touch interval between the five sensors in blocks of 20 trials of the practice phase and classified individuals in terms of clusters. We found associations between coordination dynamics, performance curves, and adaptation in both coordination and performance. Furthermore, using network analyses, we found a tendency for all groups to increase the clustering coefficient. We discuss the possibility of this result representing a process of progressive segregation.

Free access

The Evolution of Physical Activity and Health Research in China: A Bibliometric Analysis of Study Areas and Sex Balance in Authorship

Kaiyue Zhang, Diana Morales, Junshi Chen, Wenhua Zhao, Anne Tang, Eduardo Kohn, Ding Ding, Andrea Ramirez Varela, Michael Pratt, and Pedro C. Hallal

Background: This article evaluates the evolution of physical activity and health research in China through a bibliometric analysis focused on number of publications, study areas, and sex balance in authorship. Methods: A systematic review was conducted by the Global Observatory for Physical Activity for “physical activity and health” publications between 1950 and 2019. Here, we focus on the 610 Chinese publications identified, defined as those in which data collection took place in China. We assessed the number of publications, classified them into 5 areas (1) surveillance, (2) correlates and determinants, (3) health consequences, (4) interventions, and (5) policy, and analyzed female participation in authorship. Results: The first Chinese publication identified in the review was in 1990. Since, the average number of physical activity and health publications increased from one per year in the 1990s to 7.6 per year in the 2000s, and to 47 per year in the 2010s. Most publications focused on the correlates and determinants (38.7%) and the health consequences of physical activity (35.9%). Physical activity policy accounted for 2.3% of the publications. In the 1990s, 64% of the publications included at least one female author; this proportion increased to 90% in the 2010s. Conclusion: Despite a slow start, China’s research on physical activity and health has grown rapidly since 2000. The distribution of publications by study areas and female participation in authorship is similar to that observed globally, with fewer publications focused on interventions and policy as compared with other topics.

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Physical Activity Among Utah Cancer Survivors: Analysis From a Population-Based Statewide Survey

Morgan M. Millar, Sandra L. Edwards, Rachel R. Codden, Blessing S. Ofori-Atta, Kimberly A. Herget, Marjorie E. Carter, Anne C. Kirchhoff, Adriana M. Coletta, and Carol Sweeney

Background: Regular physical activity improves cancer survivors’ health-related quality of life and physical function. We estimated the proportion of Utah cancer survivors meeting U.S. Department of Health and Human Services guidelines for weekly physical activity (aerobic plus strength exercise) and identify sociodemographic, cancer, and health-related factors associated with meeting guidelines. Methods: Survivors randomly sampled from Utah Cancer Registry records were surveyed from 2018 to 2022 to ascertain physical activity. We calculated the percent of survivors meeting guidelines and conducted logistic regression to assess predictors of meeting guidelines. Analyses were weighted to account for complex survey sample design and nonresponse and age adjusted. Results: Among Utah cancer survivors, 20.7% (95% CI, 18.5%–23.2%) met guidelines for both aerobic activity and strength exercise. 22.4% reported no aerobic exercise in a typical week, and 59.4% reported no strength exercise. Survivors 75 or older were less likely to meet physical activity guidelines than those under 55 (adjusted odds ratio: 0.40; 95% CI, 0.25–0.65). Survivors with a bachelor’s degree or higher were more likely to meet physical activity guidelines than those without a college degree. Individuals with poorer overall health were less likely to report sufficient physical activity. Individuals treated with both chemotherapy and radiation had decreased odds of meeting guidelines compared to no treatment (adjusted odds ratio: 0.54; 95% CI, 0.29–0.99). Conclusions: Most Utah cancer survivors, and particularly those who received multiple modes of adjuvant treatment, are not participating in sufficient physical activity to improve longevity and quality of life after cancer.

Free access

Reactions From the Experts: Implications of Open-Source ActiGraph Counts for Analyzing Accelerometer Data

Alexander H.K. Montoye, Samuel R. LaMunion, Jan C. Brønd, and Kimberly A. Clevenger

In 2022, it became possible to produce ActiGraph counts from raw accelerometer data without use of ActiLife software. This supports the availability and use of transparent, open-source methods for producing physical behavior outcomes from accelerometer data. However, questions remain regarding the implications of the availability of open-source ActiGraph counts. This Expert Question and Answer paper solicited and summarized feedback from several noted physical behavior measurement experts on five questions related to open-source counts. The experts agreed that open-source, transparent, and translatable methods help with harmonization of accelerometer methods. However, there were mixed views as to the importance of open-source counts and their place in the field moving forward. This Expert Question and Answer provides initial feedback, but more research both within this special issue and to be conducted moving forward will help to inform whether and how open-source counts will be accepted and adopted for use for device-based physical behavior assessments.

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Spaced Use of Social Media Apps Among Motor Practice Trials Impacts Performance Without Influencing Mental Fatigue and Motor Learning

Marina Gonçalves Leal, José Eduardo dos Martírios Luz, Ana Kariele da Silva Santos, Cicero Luciano Alves Costa, Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, Cassio de Miranda Meira Jr, and Giordano Marcio Gatinho Bonuzzi

We aimed to investigate the impact of smartphone use during intertrial intervals within a distributed practice regime on mental fatigue, performance, and learning of a balance motor skill. One hundred and thirty-six participants were randomly divided into two groups: the smartphone use group (SMARTPHONE) and the control group (CONTROL). The SMARTPHONE accessed social media during the rest periods within a distributed practice of a balance task, whereas the CONTROL rested passively during the rest periods. The participants practiced the toe-touch task. The participants underwent a pretest consisting of one trial. Subsequently, the participants were engaged in practice, completing six trials interspersed with 2-min intervals of either rest or smartphone use. Following the practice phase, a posttest was conducted, and after 24 hr, we administered a retention test and a transfer test. The number of touches and the number of errors (contacting the ground with the free leg to regain balance) were performance measures. We evaluated the participants’ mental fatigue after the practice session using a visual analog scale. The groups demonstrated similar mental fatigue after practice. Our results suggest that using social media on smartphones during rest periods within a distributed practice impairs performance but not motor learning.

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A Novel Behavioral Intervention to Enhance Physical Activity for Older Veterans in a Skilled Nursing Facility

Julie A. Stutzbach, Kristine S. Hare, Allison M. Gustavson, Danielle L. Derlein, Andrea L. Kellogg, and Jennifer E. Stevens-Lapsley

Physical activity levels during skilled nursing facility (SNF) rehabilitation fall far below what is needed for successful community living and to prevent adverse events. This feasibility study’s purpose was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of an intervention designed to improve physical activity in patients admitted to SNFs for short-term rehabilitation. High-Intensity Rehabilitation plus Mobility combined a high-intensity (i.e., high weight, low repetition), progressive (increasing in difficulty over time), and functional resistance rehabilitation intervention with a behavioral economics-based physical activity program. The behavioral economics component included five mobility sessions/week with structured goal setting, gamification, and loss aversion (the idea that people are more likely to change a behavior in response to a potential loss over a potential gain). SNF physical therapists, occupational therapists, and a mobility coach implemented the High-Intensity Rehabilitation plus Mobility protocol with older Veterans (n = 18) from a single SNF. Participants demonstrated high adherence to the mobility protocol and were highly satisfied with their rehabilitation. Treatment fidelity scores for clinicians were ≥95%. We did not observe a hypothesized 40% improvement in step counts or time spent upright. However, High-Intensity Rehabilitation plus Mobility participants made clinically important improvements in short physical performance battery scores and gait speed from admission to discharge that were qualitatively similar to or slightly higher than historical cohorts from the same SNF that had received usual care or high-intensity rehabilitation alone. These results suggest a structured physical activity program can be feasibly combined with high-intensity rehabilitation for SNF residents following a hospital stay.