Student learning outcomes and assessment of those outcomes have become standard in almost every accreditation, reaffirmation, and most annual reports for accrediting bodies. Additionally, outcomes and assessments are vital to continuous improvement of sport management programs. This interview was conducted with an expert on outcomes and assessment at the national level, who can provide insight from an expert on the “outside looking in.” The purpose of this interview is to discuss broader standards in educational assessment and how those standards can be applied specifically to sport management. This resource is most useful for those early in the process of outcomes and assessment creation, those who may not already have Commission on Sport Management Accreditation and training opportunities, or those who simply want to improve their classes.
Elizabeth A. Gregg, Jason W. Lee, and Heather Alderman
Yong Chae Rhee and Kyungun Kim
Alderfer’s ERG (i.e., existence, relatedness, and growth) theory of motivation (1969) was adopted in this study to analyze individuals’ motivations for engaging in esports. This study investigated the relatively new field of esports viewership and participation by concentrating on the motivating factors behind esports consumption to establish whether esports viewership and participation are distinct markets that stand alone or are comparable to or complement each other for consumption. The study was conducted using qualitative methods consisting of semistructured focus-group interviews. The transcript was coded using open, axial, and selective coding to develop themes fitting within the ERG theory. The current study found similarities and unique findings in esports participation and consumption motivation factors under the ERG groups. Practical applications are proposed for employing the results of the study to further marketing and development efforts in this field.
Tracy A. Trachsler, Erin Morris, and Tara Q. Mahoney
With increased interest in outcomes-based assessment in sport management programs, the Specifications Grading model can be implemented within individual courses to facilitate the process. Specific requirements that are articulated at course onset with explicit directions, samples of high-scoring work, and access to evaluation rubrics can set students on the path for achieving measurable benchmarks. Thus, the submissions become objective expressions of learning instead of a points-based bargaining tool. Implemented into an Introduction to Sport Management class, the model provided opportunities for consistent engagement with assessment tools in which students had agency and multiple chances to focus on improving the assessment to meet the benchmarks. The instructor reflected upon the experience, noting administrative elements to change to assist the overall implementation of the system but discovered that the Specifications Grading model centered the students in the learning process while providing meaningful outcome data for assessment purposes. Recommendations are provided for faculty interested in implementing it in their own classrooms.
Mohsen Behnam, Mikihiro Sato, Bradley J. Baker, and Mahdiyeh Jalili
Value co-creation for service innovation is a rapidly developing concept in the current competitive market. Prior studies emphasize the conceptual aspects of the value co-creation, with limited research focusing on the interactive effects between firms and their customers created in the process of value co-creation. We propose a framework for synthesizing the interactive concepts associated with service innovation based on the service-dominant logic. We recruited participants (N = 448) from 11 sports clubs in Iran. Results indicated that openness and consumer engagement facilitate value co-creation, which in turn leads to perceived service innovation. Furthermore, perceived brand interactivity moderated the mediating role of value co-creation in the relationship between consumer engagement and perceived service innovation. Results from this research suggest openness and consumer engagement are key antecedents of value co-creation and highlight the significance of perceived brand interactivity and value co-creation in promoting service innovation at sports clubs.
Elsa Kristiansen, Barrie Houlihan, and Hans Anton Stubberud
This case study focuses on how Norwegian ski jumpers performed in the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics and the following FIS (International Ski and Snowboard Federation) ski flying World Championships 2022 in Vikersund, Norway, despite organizational conflict at the management level and intense and sustained media coverage the entire season. Five athletes (one third of the elite squad) were interviewed about how they coped with the stressors. The results revealed two main responses: One group avoided, as far as possible, hearing or reading about the conflicts and tried to stay in their “bubble” and focus on preparing for competition. The other group chose to follow the conflicts and was more willing to interact with the media, therefore experienced a higher degree of perceived stress, and consequently needed to employ a wider range of coping strategies. The findings highlight the importance of a consistent and effective management strategy in helping athletes to focus on training and competition preparation and insulate them from stressors generated by organizational turbulence and conflicts.
Nicole Sellars, Christopher Atwater, Christopher Corr, and Christina Martin
A routine critique of programmatic accreditation in the academic discipline of sport management is the tangible return from investment in specialized accreditation. As the sole accrediting body offering programmatic accreditation in the field of sport management education, the Commission on Sport Management Accreditation (COSMA) provides members with a systematic outcome-oriented approach to assist in the development of holistic sport management undergraduate and graduate degree programs. A strategic emphasis on professional competencies’ (e.g., Common Professional Components) and student outcomes’ assessment positions COSMA to be of unique value to accredited programs, specifically in the area of curriculum development. Utilizing direct student feedback, this study examined student perceptions of a sport management undergraduate curriculum at a COSMA-accredited institution. Results indicated that undergraduate students found COSMA-accredited sport management courses to be enjoyable, relevant, and of practical value. Findings are illustrative of the significance of programmatic accreditation through COSMA to the sampled institution in both systematic curriculum development and student perceptions of quality.
Molly Hayes Sauder and Jaime R. DeLuca
Diversity and inclusion are identified as necessary for enhancing the sport industry. Undergraduate sport management programs play an important role in educating aspiring sport professionals with respect to these topics. However, the literature indicates that sport management education can improve with respect to this work. Therefore, the purpose of this instructional technique review is to discuss two comparable teaching activities that sought to incorporate diversity and inclusion education into the content area of disability and sport-related compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act. Student feedback showed that despite similarities between the activities (i.e., active engagement with the Americans with Disabilities Act as it pertains to sport facilities), students had substantially different reported learning outcomes related to diversity and inclusion. This review is thus designed to illustrate the importance of deliberate framing decisions in the sport management classroom, which can have a transformative impact on students’ learning around diversity and inclusion content.