Professional team male-dominated sports have been built on masculine values; however, these values are challenged by the increasing number of women athletes entering this workplace. In this research, we explore the suitability and gender appropriateness of existing management processes and practices through three women’s professional and semiprofessional leagues. Drawing on a feminist perspective of continuum of care, players (n = 36) and organizational representatives (n = 28) were interviewed to gain insights into how athletes and organizations contend with their rapidly evolving workplaces. Framed around the values of affirmation, empowerment, and belonging, the continuum of care contrasts players’ everyday experiences of care with how organizations administer care. The research contributes through application of the feminist continuum of care. We present considerations for the management of female professional athletes in ways that are careful and an alternative value system that is affirmative, inclusive, and empowering.
Wendy O’Brien, Tracy Taylor, Clare Hanlon, and Kristine Toohey
A foundational component of sport management education is to prepare students for future employment. Research surveying employers indicated that they seek graduates with three broad types of skills: applied knowledge skills, effective relationship abilities, and workplace. Unfortunately, research also indicates that current employers are finding recent college graduates lacking in communication, interpersonal, and thinking skills. To better serve sport management students, faculty need to design opportunities to help students develop these desired skills. Using the pedagogical structure of team-based learning is one way that classrooms can be designed to assist students in the development of many of these skills while also learning how to work as part of a team.
Natalie Brown-Devlin, Michael B. Devlin, and Vincent Peña
To examine the relationship among identification, fan expectations, and sponsorship outcomes, this study examined Alabama and Clemson fan expectations and responses to the NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) football championship game outcome. This case study sought to understand how fans of winning and losing teams evaluated a sporting event’s sponsor following the conclusion of an event, positing that highly identified fans would demonstrate a halo effect, and report favorable attitudes toward the sponsoring brand as suggested by previous research. However, there is a lack of theoretical evidence regarding consumer expectations when applied within the context of sport. Thus, using the theoretical framework of identification and expectation violation theory, the authors inquired to what extent the outcome of the game and one’s expectations of the outcome influenced their evaluation of the event sponsor. The results support previous research regarding potential halo effects, but also add nuance to earlier work demonstrating that a halo effect is not unilaterally applied for all fans. Given the unpredictable nature of sport and the increasing cost of sponsoring sporting events, these findings help explain the extent to which violations of one’s expected outcome affect subsequent evaluations of a sponsor.
Jaeyeon Hwang and Jin Kim
This study examined how college students’ gender and prior participation in esports affect their perceptions of esports and esports academic programs. After collecting data from college students (N = 162), data were analyzed using 2 × 2 factorial analysis of variance to compare the influence of esports participation, gender, and the interaction effect on perception. Both esports participation, F(1, 150) = 13.78, p < .001, and gender, F(1, 150) = 4.82, p < .05, were significantly associated with esports perception. For the perception of esports academic programs, only esports participation was significant, F(1, 150) = 5.85, p < .05. Men reported positive perceptions, and this phenomenon was amplified in groups with prior esports experience. The authors suggest avenues to embrace esports in higher education, reflecting the findings of this research.
Eleanor Crabill, Callie Maddox, and Adam Beissel
The purpose of this study was to examine online news media coverage of the Australia–New Zealand joint bid to host the 2023 FIFA Women’s World Cup. Following neoliberal feminist theory and a postfeminist framework, the meanings and discourses of women’s empowerment produced in, and disseminated by, Australia and New Zealand’s popular online news media were explored. A content analysis was used to examine 77 domestic online news media articles published in response to the 2023 FIFA Women’s World Cup bid and hosting announcement. The findings revealed that the popular online news media centered on three themes: opportunities for women and girls in sport, legacy outcomes, and commercial benefits. However, there was a clear lack of critical engagement from the news media over the bid’s initiatives, claims, and promises. Only 2.5% of all online news media coverage engaged in meaningful discussion, analysis, and critique of the purported social and economic impacts of the 2023 FIFA Women’s World Cup. This study raises critical questions about the role of Australian and New Zealand (sport) media in (a) serving as a prominent forum through which the As One 2023 bid committee could circulate strategically crafted, preferred narratives regarding the event’s legacies and impacts to manufacture consent and public support for event hosting and (b) propagating a postfeminist celebration of women’s sport mega events that uncritically circulates specious claims of women’s empowerment, participation growth, and commercial benefits of the event.
Brian P. Soebbing, Chad S. Seifried, and Patrick Tutka
The novelty effect has a long history in sport facility research with most research examining new facility construction. The present study explores the impact of renovated facilities, specifically the novelty effect, as it pertains to revenue and secondarily attendance. Within, we also explore four different renovation types as classified by the U.S. National Registry of Historic Places to look at any individual impact or revelation using institutions participating in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision. Results from ordinary least squares and Tobit estimations from a sample period covering 1993 through 2017 conclude a novelty effect associated with renovations does exist for attendance. However, the effect is shorter in duration and delayed by a few seasons based upon the type of renovation. As for revenues, we find some positive impact on revenues. Those impacts are delayed are on based on certain types of renovation.
Janelle E. Wells, Michelle G. Harrolle, K. Doreen MacAulay, Gregory Greenhalgh, and Samuel C. Morgan
To meet the growing and innovative career opportunities in technology and sport, particularly in electronic sports, both practitioners and scholars must engage in an iterative process to analyze, design, and evaluate educational interventions and innovations with design-based research. Being in a young academic discipline, sport management faculty shape the next generation of practitioners, so the purpose of this research was to examine faculty’s openness to innovation through an andragogical teaching approach and the incorporation of the business of electronic sports within the curriculum. Through a two-part study, results revealed that faculty had a balanced teacher- and learner-focused approach, which demonstrated that advancement of electronic sports can transcend all types of faculty in a young field. Implications from this novel, yet extremely relevant, research will help both practitioners and scholars innovatively and collaboratively navigate institutional complexities.
The aim of the current study was to examine the sport motivations of three types of National Basketball Association fans based on their geographic proximity to the team: local fans (i.e., U.S.-based fans of a local team), nonlocal fans (i.e., U.S.-based fans of a nonlocal team), and distant fans (i.e., China-based fans). The author used the psychological continuum model to measure level of psychological involvement with the team in order to determine whether fans were casual, moderate, or loyal. Using one-way analyses of variance and factorial analyses of variance, the author found that Chinese distant fans reported the highest motivation for seven of the nine types of motivation measured. Results also show that geographic locality predicted significant motivational differences among casual and moderate fans but not among loyal fans. The findings have both theoretical and applied implications and call for stronger focus on the influence of locality in the sport industry.
David Cassilo and Joseph McGlynn
This study examined interviews with former National Football League (NFL) players to better understand the role that source credibility plays in concussion and injury communication. The NFL has a complex history with concussions and other injuries, yet has made some recent attempts to improve player safety. Researchers interviewed 10 former NFL players about concussion and injury communication that is league-based, team-based, and teammate-based. The researchers performed a thematic analysis of those interview transcripts with a focus on source credibility and injury communication, finding that while the NFL has attempted to make the game safer, players still struggle to trust the league, which impacts their willingness to accept health information. These findings indicate that NFL players may never find the league truly credible or neutral toward injuries. Further, injury education programs that include greater involvement from teammates may be successful strategies to increasing awareness within the locker room, as players indicated that fellow players can be viewed as more trustworthy sources of information.