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Nadja Willinger, James Steele, Lou Atkinson, Gary Liguori, Alfonso Jimenez, Steve Mann, and Elizabeth Horton

Background: Structured physical activity (PA) interventions (ie, intentionally planned) can be implemented in a variety of facilities, and therefore can reach a large proportion of the population. The aim of the authors was to summarize the effectiveness of structured interventions upon PA outcomes, in addition to proportions of individuals adopting and maintaining PA, and adherence and retention rates. Methods: Systematic review with narrative synthesis and exploratory meta-analyses. Twelve studies were included. Results: Effectiveness on PA levels during adoption (pre- to first time point) showed a trivial standardized effect (0.15 [−0.06 to 0.36]); during maintenance (any time point after the first and >6 mo since initiation) the standardized effect was also trivial with a wide interval estimate (0.19 [−0.68 to 1.07]). Few studies reported adoption (k = 3) or maintenance rates (k = 2). Retention at follow-up did not differ between structured PA or controls (75.1% [65.0%–83.0%] vs 75.4% [67.0%–82.3%]), nor did intervention adherence (63.0% [55.6%–69.6%] vs 77.8% [19.4%–98.1%]). Conclusion: Structured PA interventions lack evidence for effectiveness in improving PA levels. Furthermore, though retention is often reported and is similar between interventions and controls, adoption, maintenance, and adherence rates were rarely reported rendering difficulty in interpreting results of effectiveness of structured PA interventions.

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Jack Hagyard, Jack Brimmell, Elizabeth J. Edwards, and Robert S. Vaughan

Inhibitory control may be vital in elite sport. The authors examined the link between athletic expertise, inhibitory control, and sport performance in a two-part quasi experiment. Inhibitory control was indexed using the Stop-Signal Task, athlete expertise was categorized on literary recommendations, and sport performance was assessed using athlete and coach ratings. Study 1 examined cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of inhibitory control across athletic expertise. Study 2 investigated whether the inhibitory control–sport performance relationship was moderated by expertise. Study 1 showed that expertise was linked to greater inhibitory control cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Study 2 revealed that expertise was related to superior performance on the Stop-Signal Task and athlete and coach performance ratings, and this relationship was moderated by athletic expertise. Inhibitory control relates to sport performance, increases with greater athlete expertise, and develops longitudinally. Long-term participation in sport may bring about changes in inhibitory control, which may lead to improved sport performance.

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Alannah K.A. McKay, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Nicolin Tee, Marijke Welveart, Ida A. Heikura, Avish P. Sharma, Jamie Whitfield, Megan L. Ross, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers, and Louise M. Burke

This study implemented a 2-week high carbohydrate (CHO) diet intended to maximize CHO oxidation rates and examined the iron-regulatory response to a 26-km race walking effort. Twenty international-level, male race walkers were assigned to either a novel high CHO diet (MAX = 10 g/kg body mass CHO daily) inclusive of gut-training strategies, or a moderate CHO control diet (CON = 6 g/kg body mass CHO daily) for a 2-week training period. The athletes completed a 26-km race walking test protocol before and after the dietary intervention. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post-, and 3 hr postexercise and measured for serum ferritin, interleukin-6, and hepcidin-25 concentrations. Similar decreases in serum ferritin (17–23%) occurred postintervention in MAX and CON. At the baseline, CON had a greater postexercise increase in interleukin-6 levels after 26 km of walking (20.1-fold, 95% CI [9.2, 35.7]) compared with MAX (10.2-fold, 95% CI [3.7, 18.7]). A similar finding was evident for hepcidin levels 3 hr postexercise (CON = 10.8-fold, 95% CI [4.8, 21.2]; MAX = 8.8-fold, 95% CI [3.9, 16.4]). Postintervention, there were no substantial differences in the interleukin-6 response (CON = 13.6-fold, 95% CI [9.2, 20.5]; MAX = 11.2-fold, 95% CI [6.5, 21.3]) or hepcidin levels (CON = 7.1-fold, 95% CI [2.1, 15.4]; MAX = 6.3-fold, 95% CI [1.8, 14.6]) between the dietary groups. Higher resting serum ferritin (p = .004) and hotter trial ambient temperatures (p = .014) were associated with greater hepcidin levels 3 hr postexercise. Very high CHO diets employed by endurance athletes to increase CHO oxidation have little impact on iron regulation in elite athletes. It appears that variations in serum ferritin concentration and ambient temperature, rather than dietary CHO, are associated with increased hepcidin concentrations 3 hr postexercise.

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Ladda Thiamwong

This study aimed to explore older adults’ experience with an in-home Physio-feEdback and Exercise pRogram and explore whether the Physio-feEdback and Exercise pRogram intervention influenced their physical activity adherence. A qualitative study approach was employed, and data were collected using exercise logs, observations, focus groups, and open-ended questions after the program completion. Nineteen participants who engaged in an 8-week Physio-feEdback and Exercise pRogram intervention participated in this study. Thematic analysis was used. Three major concepts of the self-determination theory, including competence, relatedness, and autonomy, were used as guidelines for coding. Results reveal three themes, including: (a) competence-alignment of body and mind and increased awareness about fall risk, (b) relatedness-relationship with peer coach and having fun with friends, and (c) autonomy-integration of exercise into daily activities for staying physically and socially active. Individuals’ need for competence and autonomy can be supported by giving physio-feedback, cognitive reframing, and peer-led exercise, which can enhance physical activity and prevent falls.

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Lisa Jasper, Lauren A. Beaupre, John C. Spence, and C. Allyson Jones

Few validated tools exist for measuring physical activity following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) despite the importance of returning to sufficient levels of physical activity post-TKA to achieve health benefits. This study examined the validity of two clinical measures—the Fitbit, a commercially available personal activity monitor, and the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS), a self-report questionnaire—compared with a reference standard accelerometer, the SenseWearTM Armband (SWA). At 6-month post-TKA, 47 participants wore the Fitbit and SWA for 4 days and then completed the CHAMPS. Moderate-to-good correlation was observed between the Fitbit and SWA for steps (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = .79), energy expenditure (ICC = .78), and energy expenditure <3 METS (ICC = .79). Poor-to-moderate correlation was observed between the CHAMPS and SWA (ICC = .43) with the questionnaire reporting lower daily energy expenditures than the SWA. Results showed that Fitbit may be a reasonable measurement tool to measure steps and energy expenditures in older adults following TKA.

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Costas I. Karageorghis, Leighton Jones, Luke W. Howard, Rhys M. Thomas, Panayiotis Moulashis, and Sam J. Santich

The authors investigated the effects of respite–active music (i.e., music used for active recovery in between high-intensity exercise bouts) on psychological and psychophysiological outcomes. Participants (N = 24) made four laboratory visits for a habituation, medium- and fast-tempo music conditions, and a no-music control. A high-intensity interval-training protocol comprising 8 × 60-s exercise bouts at 100% W max with 90-s active recovery was administered. Measures were taken at the end of exercise bouts and recovery periods (rating of perceived exertion [RPE], state attention, and core affect) and then upon cessation of the protocol (enjoyment and remembered pleasure). Heart rate was measured throughout. Medium-tempo music enhanced affective valence during exercise and recovery, while both music conditions increased dissociation (only during recovery), enjoyment, and remembered pleasure relative to control. Medium-tempo music lowered RPE relative to control, but the heart rate results were inconclusive. As predicted, medium-tempo music, in particular, had a meaningful effect on a range of psychological outcomes.

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Antonio W.S. Maciel, Leandro M. Pinto, Roberta C.A. Campos, Andressa C. Ferreira, Carlos A.A. Dias-Filho, Carlos J.M. Dias, Flávio de Oliveira Pires, Christiano B. Urtado, Bruno Rodrigues, and Cristiano Teixeira Mostarda

Aim: To compare the acute effects of two resistance exercise sessions with different partial blood flow restrictions (BFR) on hemodynamic parameters and cardiac autonomic modulation in older women with metabolic syndrome. Methods: Thirty-nine older women (64.4 ± 4.5 years) were allocated into three groups: BFR0 = resistance exercise (20%, 1 maximum repetition [MR]) + 0% BFR; BFR60 = 20% 1 MR resistance exercise + 60% BFR; and BFR80 = 20% 1MR resistance exercise + 80% BFR. Results: A reduction of 14 mmHg (BFR60 group) and 13 mmHg (BRF80 group) was observed 48 hr after the first exercise session, while vagal modulation was increased in the BRF60 group after 24 and 48 hr. Conclusion: A low-intensity resistance exercise session with 60% and 80% of BFR resulted in blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, and mean) reduction and positive changes on heart rate variability after 24 h of a RE session.

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Dorthe Dalstrup Jakobsen, Jasper Schipperijn, and Jens Meldgaard Bruun

Background: In Denmark, most children are not sufficiently physically active and only a few interventions have been found to increase long-term physical activity among overweight and obese children. The aim of our study was to investigate if children are physically active in correspondence to Danish recommendations after attending a multicomponent-overnight camp. Methods: A questionnaire was developed to estimate children’s physical activity level and behavior and investigate how transport, economy, availability, time, motivation, and knowledge about physical activity affect children’s physical activity level and behavior. Results: In this study, 60.9% of the children did vigorous physical activity (VPA) minimum 30 minutes 3 times per week up to 3 years after camp. Most children were physically active at a sports club (44.3%) and only 5.7% of the children did not participate in physical activity. Parental physical activity and child motivation toward physical activity were significantly (P < .05) associated with children doing VPA. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that 60.9% of children who attended camp engage in VPA after camp, which compared with a recent Danish study, is more frequent than children who did not attend camp. Further investigations are needed to determine the long-term health effects in children attending interventions such as multicomponent-overnight camps.