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Rachel R. Kleis, Matt C. Hoch, Rachel Hogg-Graham and Johanna M. Hoch

Background: Despite the known risks of physical inactivity, only 50% of adults meet the recommended guidelines for physical activity (PA). Therefore, numerous interventions have been designed to increase PA across a lifespan. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of interventions based on the transtheoretical model to improve PA in healthy adults. Methods: Electronic databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, Sociological Collection, and SPORTDiscus) were systematically searched from January 2001 to May 2020. Results: A total of 11 randomized pretest–posttest studies were included in this review. Ten studies utilized a subjective measurement of PA, and 3 studies included an objective measure. Five studies demonstrated significant improvements in PA for the transtheoretical model-based intervention groups compared with control/comparison groups; however, 6 studies demonstrated no differences between groups. Conclusion: The findings suggest that there is inconsistent evidence to support the use of interventions based on the transtheoretical model to improve PA in adult populations. Interventions were more successful when materials were delivered via in-person counseling and when study participants were in the precontemplation or contemplation phases at baseline.

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Spencer E. Boyle, Melissa A. Fothergill, John Metcalfe, Sarah Docherty and Crystal F. Haskell-Ramsay

Background: Physical activity provides a number of physical and psychological benefits. Multimodal proprioceptive exercise represents a useful balance-based exercise with the potential to reduce falls in older adults. Previous research has also indicated cognitive benefits following multimodal proprioceptive exercise in young and older adults. This study aimed to assess cognition and mood following 2 types of physical activity (multimodal proprioception vs yoga) compared with control (classroom-based) in healthy older adults. Method: Nineteen older adults (Mage = 65, sex = 9 males) participated in this randomized controlled crossover trial. Participants completed a 20-minute multimodal proprioceptive exercise class, 20-minute yoga session, and 20-minute classroom-based control. Numeric working memory and mood were assessed before and immediately following each of the interventions. Results: The multimodal proprioceptive intervention significantly reduced numeric working memory reaction time versus the yoga (P = .043) and control (P = .023) group. There were no differences found for accuracy or mood. Conclusions: These results indicate that multimodal proprioceptive exercise is worthy of further investigation as an alternative mode of exercise alongside the more traditional aerobic and strength-based exercise for healthy older adults.

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Neil D. Clarke and Darren L. Richardson

There is growing evidence that caffeine and coffee ingestion prior to exercise provide similar ergogenic benefits. However, there has been a long-standing paradigm that habitual caffeine intake may influence the ergogenicity of caffeine supplementation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of habitual caffeine intake on 5-km cycling time-trial performance following the ingestion of caffeinated coffee. Following institutional ethical approval, in a double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled design, 46 recreationally active participants (27 men and 19 women) completed a 5-km cycling time trial on a cycle ergometer 60 m in following the ingestion of 0.09 g/kg coffee providing 3 mg/kg of caffeine, or a placebo. Habitual caffeine consumption was assessed using a caffeine consumption questionnaire with low habitual caffeine consumption defined as <3 and ≥6 mg · kg−1 · day−1 defined as high. An analysis of covariance using habitual caffeine intake as a covariant was performed to establish if habitual caffeine consumption had an impact on the ergogenic effect of coffee ingestion. Sixteen participants were classified as high-caffeine users and 30 as low. Ingesting caffeinated coffee improved 5-km cycling time-trial performance by 8 ± 12 s; 95% confidence interval (CI) [5, 13]; p < .001; d = 0.30, with low, 9±14 s; 95% CI [3, 14]; p = .002; d = 0.18, and high, 8 ± 10 s; 95% CI [−1, 17]; p = .008; d = 0.06, users improving by a similar magnitude, 95% CI [−12, 12]; p = .946; d = 0.08. In conclusion, habitual caffeine consumption did not affect the ergogenicity of coffee ingestion prior to a 5-km cycling time trial.

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George P. Robinson, Sophie C. Killer, Zdravko Stoyanov, Harri Stephens, Luke Read, Lewis J. James and Stephen J. Bailey

This study investigated whether supplementation with nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR) can improve high-intensity intermittent running performance in trained males in normoxia and different doses of normobaric hypoxia. Eight endurance-trained males (V˙O2peak, 62 ± 6 ml·kg−1·min−1) completed repeated 90 s intervals at 110% of peak treadmill velocity, from an initial step incremental test, interspersed by 60 s of passive recovery until exhaustion (T lim). Participants completed the first three experimental trials during days 3, 5, and 7 of BR or nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (PLA) supplementation and completed the remaining experimental visits on the alternative supplement following at least 7 days of washout. The fraction of inspired oxygen during visits 1–3 was either 0.209, 0.182, or 0.157, equivalent to an altitude of 0, 1,200, and 2,400 m, respectively, and this order was replicated on visits 4–6. Arterial oxygen saturation declined dose dependently as fraction of inspired oxygen was lowered (p < .05). Plasma nitrite concentration was higher pre- and postexercise after BR compared with PLA supplementation (p < .05). There was no difference in Tlim between PLA and BR at 0 m (445 [324, 508] and 410 [368, 548] s); 1,200 m (341 [270, 390] and 332 [314, 356] s); or 2,400 m (233 [177, 373] and 251 [221, 323] s) (median and [interquartile range]; p > .05). The findings from this study suggest that short-term BR supplementation does not improve high-intensity intermittent running performance in endurance-trained males in normoxia or at doses of normobaric hypoxia that correspond to altitudes at which athletes typically train while on altitude training camps.