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Eric M. Martin, Megan Byrd, Adriana Amador, Emma Ridenhour, and Carolena Charalambous

Context: The influence of several psychological characteristics on the willingness of athletes to report concussion behaviors has not been well explored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand how athletic identity and sport passion predicted participants’ willingness to report symptoms above what was explained by athlete demographics, concussion knowledge, and perceived seriousness of concussions. Design: The study was cross-sectional. Methods: Three-hundred and twenty-two male and female high school and club sport athletes completed survey measures of concussion knowledge, athletic identity, harmonious and obsessive passion, and degree to which athletes indicated they would report concussions and concussion symptoms. Results: Athletes scored moderately high on their knowledge of symptoms and other concussion information (mean = 16.21; ± = 2.88) and above the midpoint on their attitudes and behaviors toward reporting concussion symptoms (mean = 3.64; ± = 0.70). There were no differences between gender, t(299) = −.78, P = .44, and previous concussion education, t(296) = 1.93, P = .06, related to concussion knowledge. Results of a hierarchical regression indicated that after entering athlete demographics, concussion knowledge, and perceived seriousness of concussions, of the 3 psychological variables in the final stage of the model, only obsessive passion was a significant predictor of athlete’s attitudes to report a concussion. Conclusions: Perceived seriousness of concussion, perceived threat to long-term health, and obsessive passion were the strongest predictors of athlete’s willingness to report concussions. Athletes who did not believe concussions posed a threat to their current or future health, and those that held an obsessive passion for sport were most at risk for not reporting concussions. Future research should continue to investigate the relationship between reporting behaviors and psychological factors.

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Eleftherios Kellis, Athanasios Konstantopoulos, and Athanasios Ellinoudis

Context: Bridge exercises are extensively used in trunk-strengthening programs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bridging duration on lateral abdominal muscle thickness and gluteus maximus activation. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Twenty-five young males participated in this study. Transversus abdominal (TrA), external and internal oblique ultrasound thickness, gluteus maximus electromyographic activation, and sacral tilt angle were simultaneously measured for every second during 30-second bridging exercise. The contraction thickness ratio and root mean squared signal (normalized to maximum isometric contraction signal) during 6 exercise durations (from 0 to 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 s) were also calculated and compared using analysis of variance designs. Results: TrA and internal oblique contraction thickness ratio and gluteus maximus root mean squared increased during the first 8 to 10 seconds and remained elevated until the end of the 30-second exercise (P < .05). External oblique contraction thickness ratio declined during exercise (P < .05). Five-second bridging showed less TrA thickness and anteroposterior and mediolateral sacral tilt angle and a lower anteroposterior tilt variability compared with bridges, which lasted more than 10 seconds (P < .05). Conclusions: Bridge exercises longer than 10 seconds may be better for promoting TrA recruitment than bridges of shorter duration. Clinicians and exercise specialists could adjust the duration of bridge exercise based on the aims of the exercise program.

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Rebecca A.M. Wills, Jacquelyn M. Maciukiewicz, Marina Mourtzakis, and Clark R. Dickerson

Breast cancer affects one in 8 females with a 5-year survival rate of 89%. Up to 72% of breast cancer survivors have trouble with activities of daily living (ADL) following treatment. Increased time-from-treatment improves some measures of function, yet ADL limitations persist. Therefore, this study assessed the effect of time-from-treatment on upper extremity kinematics during ADLs in breast cancer survivors. Twenty-nine female breast cancer survivors were divided into 2 groups: <1 year (n = 12) and 1–2 years (n = 17) from treatment. Kinematics were collected during 6 ADL tasks, and humerothoracic joint angles were quantified. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance assessed the effects of time-from-treatment and arm on maximum angles for each ADL. Decreased maximum angle existed for breast cancer survivors with increased time-from-treatment during all ADLs. Breast cancer survivors in the 1–2 years group used ∼28° to 32° lower elevation, ∼14° to 28° lower axial rotation, and ∼10° to 14° lower plane of elevation range across tasks. Decreased ranges of arm movement during ADLs with increased time-from-treatment may reflect compensatory movement strategies. Recognizing this shift in strategies and accompanying underlying disease progression can help inform responses to functional performance limitations in breast cancer survivors as delayed effects are present posttreatment.

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Marie-Reine El-Hage, Alexandra Wendling, Mindy F. Levin, and Anatol G. Feldman

The referent control theory (RCT) for action and perception is an advanced formulation of the equilibrium-point hypothesis. The RCT suggests that rather than directly specifying the desired motor outcome, the nervous system controls action and perception indirectly by setting the values of parameters of physical and physiological laws. This is done independently of values of kinematic and kinetic variables including electromyographic patterns describing the motor outcome. One such parameter—the threshold muscle length, λ, at which motoneurons of a given muscle begin to be recruited, has been identified experimentally. In RCT, a similar parameter, the referent arm position, R, has been defined for multiple arm muscles as the threshold arm position at which arm muscles can be quiescent but activated depending on the deflection of the actual arm position, Q, from R. Changes in R result in reciprocal changes in the activity of opposing muscle groups. We advanced the explanatory power of RCT by combining the usual biomechanical descriptions of motor actions with the identification of the timing of R underlying arm movements made with reversals in three directions and to three different extents. We found that in all movements, periods of minimization of the activity of multiple muscles could be identified at ∼61%–86% of the reaching extent in each direction. These electromyographic minimization periods reflect the spatial coordinates at which the R and Q overlap during the production of movements with reversals. The findings support the concept of the production of arm movement by shifting R.

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Letícia Almeida de Oliveira, Viviane Bortoluzzi Frasson, Anna Torresan, Marco Aurélio Vaz, and Bruno Manfredini Baroni

Context: Laboratorial 3-dimensional kinematic analyses have shown changes in the single-leg squat’s (SLS) pattern of patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS). However, it is unknown whether clinicians are able to detect these changes using 2-dimensional kinematics. Objective: To compare the frontal plane 2-dimensional kinematics of patients with FAIS and asymptomatic individuals in the SLS test performed in a clinical setting. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Physical therapy clinic. Participants: Twenty men with bilateral FAIS and 20 asymptomatic men. Main Outcome Measures: Two-dimensional kinematic analysis was collected in the frontal plane during the execution of the SLS test. The outcomes were squat depth, pelvic drop (pelvis angle relative to the horizontal plane), hip adduction (femur angle relative to the pelvis), and knee valgus (femur angle relative to the tibia). Results: Most and least painful limbs of patients with FAIS had squat depth (9.8% [2.9%] and 9.5% [3.1%] of height), pelvic drop (4.2° [3.9°] and 3.7° [4.2°]), hip adduction (74.9° [5.8°] and 75.9° [5.7°]), and knee valgus (4.0° [11.0°] and 5.0° [9.9°]) similar to asymptomatic individuals (9.0% [2.3%], 4.8° [2.6°], 73.7° [4.9°], and −1.7° [8.5°]; P > .05 for all). Conclusion: The frontal plane 2-dimensional kinematic analysis of the SLS test in the clinical setting is not able to distinguish patients with FAIS from asymptomatic individuals.

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Masato Chijimatsu, Tomoya Ishida, Masanori Yamanaka, Shohei Taniguchi, Ryo Ueno, Ryohei Ikuta, Mina Samukawa, Takumi Ino, Satoshi Kasahara, and Harukazu Tohyama

Single-leg landings with or without subsequent jumping are frequently used to evaluate landing biomechanics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of subsequent jumping on the external knee abduction moment and trunk and hip biomechanics during single-leg landing. Thirty young adult female participants performed a single-leg drop vertical jumping (SDVJ; landing with subsequent jumping) and single-leg drop landing (SDL; landing without subsequent jumping). Trunk, hip, and knee biomechanics were evaluated using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. The peak knee abduction moment was significantly larger during SDVJ than during SDL (SDVJ 0.08 [0.10] N·m·kg−1·m−1, SDL 0.05 [0.10] N·m·kg−1·m−1, P = .002). The trunk lateral tilt and rotation angles toward the support-leg side and external hip abduction moment were significantly larger during SDVJ than during SDL (P < .05). The difference in the peak hip abduction moment between SDVJ and SDL predicted the difference in the peak knee abduction moment (P = .003, R 2 = .252). Landing tasks with subsequent jumping would have advantages for evaluating trunk and hip control as well as knee abduction moment. In particular, evaluating hip abduction moment may be important because of its association with the knee abduction moment.

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Mary Frances Segars, Tanner M. Filben, N. Stewart Pritchard, Logan E. Miller, Christopher M. Miles, Joel D. Stitzel, and Jillian E. Urban

Soccer, one of the most popular sports in the world, has one of the highest rates of sports-related concussions. Additionally, soccer players are frequently exposed to nonconcussive impacts from intentionally heading the ball, a fundamental component of the sport. There have been many studies on head impact exposure in soccer, but few focus on soccer practices or practice activities. This study aimed to characterize the frequency and magnitude of head impacts in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female soccer practice activities using a custom-fit instrumented mouthpiece. Sixteen players were instrumented over the course of 54 practice sessions. Video analysis was performed to verify all mouthpiece-recorded events and classify practice activities. Category groupings of practice activities include technical training, team interaction, set pieces, position-specific, and other. Differences in head impact rates and peak resultant kinematics were observed across activity types and category groupings. Technical training had the highest impact rate compared to other category groupings. Impacts occurring during set piece activities had the highest mean kinematic values. Understanding drill exposure can help inform coaches on training plans aimed to reduce head impact exposure for their athletes.