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Ashley A. Herda, Brianna D. McKay, Trent J. Herda, Pablo B. Costa, Jeffrey R. Stout and Joel T. Cramer

The purpose of this trial was to examine the effects of self-selected exercise intensities plus either whey protein or placebo supplementation on vital signs, body composition, bone mineral density, muscle strength, and mobility in older adults. A total of 101 participants aged 55 years and older (males [n = 34] and females [n = 67]) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of self-selected, free-weight resistance exercise plus 30 min of self-paced walking three times per week. The participants were randomized into two groups: whey protein (n = 46) or placebo (n = 55). Three-way mixed factorial analyses of variance were used to test for mean differences for each variable. The 12 weeks of self-selected, self-paced exercise intensities improved resting heart rate, fat-free mass, percent body fat, handgrip strength, bench press strength, leg press strength, and all mobility measurements (p < .05) in males and females despite supplementation status. This suggests that additional protein in well-fed healthy older adults does not enhance the benefit of exercise.

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Chiharu Iwasaka, Tsubasa Mitsutake and Etsuo Horikawa

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between leg skeletal muscle mass asymmetry and usual gait speed in older adults. Methods: The subjects were 139 community-dwelling older adults. The asymmetry index was calculated using the leg skeletal muscle mass index (LSMI) values of both legs. The subjects were divided into “large” and “small” asymmetry groups based on the asymmetry index. The relationship between asymmetry and gait speed was analyzed using a linear regression model. The appendicular skeletal muscle mass index and LSMI were included as adjustment variables in the analysis. Results: The asymmetry index and having a “large” asymmetry were independently related to gait speed, even after adjusting for covariates such as appendicular skeletal muscle mass index and LSMI. Discussion: Leg skeletal muscle mass asymmetry was related to gait speed independently of the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index and LSMI values. A skeletal muscle mass evaluation among older adults should include an assessment of the total skeletal muscle mass and its asymmetry.

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Jason Flindall, Scott Sinnett and Alan Kingstone

The length of the last visual fixation before the critical final phase of a movement—the quiet eye (QE) fixation—is positively correlated with expertise and success. The present study tested the potential for intraskill transfer of QE durations in order to determine whether it is intrinsically linked to expertise development or is a separable skill that may be employed to improve performance under novel circumstances. The authors tracked highly skilled dart throwers’ gazes while they executed familiar (highly practiced) and familiar yet novel (distance/effector-modified) sport-specific actions. QE duration was significantly reduced when performing in unfamiliar conditions, suggesting that QE does not transfer to atypical conditions and may therefore be a result of—rather than a contributor to—expertise development. These results imply that intraskill transfer of QE is limited and, consistent with the inhibition hypothesis of QE development, argue against the value of teaching QE as an independent means of improving performance.

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Erja Portegijs, Erik J. Timmermans, Maria V. Castell, Elaine M. Dennison, Florian Herbolsheimer, Federica Limongi, Suzan van der Pas, Laura A. Schaap, Natasja van Schoor and Dorly J.H. Deeg

Objectives: To study associations between perceived neighborhood resources and time spent by older adults in active travel. Methods: Respondents in six European countries, aged 65–85 years, reported on the perceived presence of neighborhood resources (parks, places to sit, public transportation, and facilities) with response options “a lot,” “some,” and “not at all.” Daily active travel time (total minutes of transport-related walking and cycling) was self-reported at the baseline (n = 2,695) and 12–18 months later (n = 2,189). Results: Reporting a lot of any of the separate resources (range B’s = 0.19–0.29) and some or a lot for all four resources (B = 0.22, 95% confidence interval [0.09, 0.35]) was associated with longer active travel time than reporting none or fewer resources. Associations remained over the follow-up, but the changes in travel time were similar, regardless of the neighborhood resources. Discussion: Perceiving multiple neighborhood resources may support older adults’ active travel. Potential interventions, for example, the provision of new resources or increasing awareness of existing resources, require further study.

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K. Dillon and Harry Prapavessis

Older adults in assisted living spend most of their day in sedentary behaviors, which may be detrimental to cognitive function. The primary purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of using a prompting device to reduce sitting time with light walking among older adults with mild to moderate cognitive impairment residing in an assisted living setting. A secondary purpose was to examine the effectiveness of the intervention on the residents’ cognitive function, physical function, and quality of life. The participants (n = 25, mean age = 86.7 [5.3] years) were assigned in clusters into a two-arm 10-week single-site pilot randomized controlled trial. The intervention group was prompted with a watch to interrupt sedentary behaviors and partake in 10 min of light physical activity (i.e., walking) three times a day after a meal. The assessments included hip-worn accelerometers (Actical) and diaries, the Alzheimer’s disease assessment scale—cognitive, Timed Up and Go, and the short-form 36 health survey. Adherence was high, as there were no dropouts, and over 70% of the participants completed over 80% of the prescribed physical activity bouts. Significant effects favoring the intervention were shown for all outcomes.

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Britton W. Brewer, Christine M. Caldwell, Albert J. Petitpas, Judy L. Van Raalte, Miquel Pans and Allen E. Cornelius

A sport-specific, self-report measure of identity foreclosure was developed through a systematic process that included item pool generation, expert review, administration of items to a development sample of intercollegiate student athletes (N = 326), item evaluation, and administration of scales to validation samples of intercollegiate student athletes (N = 322, N = 54, and N = 64, respectively). The process yielded two four-item scales reflecting commitment to the occupational identity of athlete and one 4-item scale reflecting active exploration of roles other than that of athlete that (a) are internally consistent and temporally stable, (b) demonstrate preliminary factorial and convergent validity, and (c) can be used to create indices of identity foreclosure tailored to the sport context. The resulting Sport-Specific Measure of Identity Foreclosure has potential utility as an assessment tool for research and practice with athletes.

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Leila Selimbegović, Olivier Dupuy, Julie Terache, Yannick Blandin, Laurent Bosquet and Armand Chatard

Research shows that negative or threatening emotional stimuli can foster movement velocity and force. However, less is known about how evaluative threat may influence movement parameters in endurance exercise. Based on social self-preservation theory, the authors predicted that evaluative threat would facilitate effort expenditure in physical exercise. In an exploratory study, 27 young men completed a bogus intelligence test and received either low-intelligence-quotient feedback (evaluative threat) or no feedback (control). Next, they were asked to pedal on a stationary bicycle for 30 min at a constant cadence. After 10 min (calibration period), the cadence display was hidden. Findings show that participants under evaluative threat increased cadence more than control participants during the subsequent 20-min critical period. These findings underline the potential importance of unrelated evaluative threat on physical performance.

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Assumpta Ensenyat, Gemma Espigares-Tribo, Leonardo Machado-Da-Silva, Xenia Sinfreu-Bergués and Alfonso Blanco

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a high-intensity semisupervised exercise program alongside lifestyle counseling as an intervention for managing cardiometabolic risk in sedentary adults. Methods: A 40-week 3-arm randomized controlled clinical trial (16-wk intervention and 24-wk follow-up) was used. Seventy-five sedentary adults (34–55 y) with at least 1 cardiometabolic risk factor were randomized into one of the following arms: (1) aerobic interval training (AIT) plus lifestyle counseling (n = 25), (2) low- to moderate-intensity continuous training plus lifestyle counseling (traditional continuous training, TCT) (n = 27), or (3) lifestyle counseling alone (COU) (n = 23). Metabolic syndrome severity scores, accelerometer-based physical activity, and self-reported dietary habits were assessed at baseline, after the intervention, and at follow-up. Results: AIT was well accepted with high enjoyment scores. All groups showed similar improvements in metabolic syndrome severity scores (standardized effect size = 0.46) and dietary habits (standardized effect size = 0.30). Moderate to vigorous physical activity increased in all study groups, with the number of responders higher in AIT and TCT groups (50%) than in COU group (21%). Both AIT and TCT had a greater impact on sedentary behavior than COU (63.5% vs 30.4% responders). Conclusions: AIT appears to be a feasible and effective strategy in sedentary individuals with cardiometabolic risk factors. AIT could be included in intervention programs tackling unhealthy lifestyles.

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Alberto Grao-Cruces, Julio Conde-Caveda, Magdalena Cuenca-García, Román Nuviala, Alejandro Pérez-Bey, Fátima Martín-Acosta and José Castro-Piñero

Background: According to the current physical activity (PA) recommendations, children should accumulate 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) throughout the day, 30 minutes of MVPA during the school hours, and 50% of the recess time in MVPA. Our aim was to examine the temporal trends of accelerometer-based PA during the previously mentioned day segments and the proportion of children who met the PA recommendations. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 2 independent samples: 499 fourth graders (49.2% females) in 2011–2012 and 364 fourth graders (46.9% females) in 2017–2018. Hip-worn accelerometers were used to assess PA. Results: A decline in light PA, moderate PA, vigorous PA, MVPA, and total PA during whole day, and in the rate of compliance with daily MVPA recommendations in males (P < .01) was observed from 2011–2012 to 2017–2018. Females decreased their daily light PA and moderate PA (P < .05). A decline in all PA variables during school hours in both sexes (P < .05) and in the rate of compliance with the 30 minutes of MVPA recommended during school hours in males (P < .001) were observed. There were no differences in PA during recesses. Conclusions: Interventions are needed to attenuate the temporal decrease in PA levels in children.