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Christopher J. Stevens, Megan L.R. Ross and Roxanne M. Vogel

Menthol is effective at stimulating thermosensitive neurons that evoke pleasant cooling sensations. Internal application of menthol can be ergogenic for athletes, and hence, addition of menthol to sports nutrition products may be beneficial for athletes. The aim of this study was to develop a menthol energy gel for consumption during exercise and to determine acceptability and preferences for gels with different menthol concentrations. With a randomized, crossover, and double-blind placebo-controlled design, 40 endurance athletes (20 females) ingested an energy gel with a menthol additive at a high (0.5%; HIGH) or low concentration (0.1%; LOW), or a mint-flavored placebo (CON), on separate occasions during outdoor endurance training sessions. The athletes rated the gels for cooling sensation, mint flavor intensity, sweetness, and overall experience and provided feedback. Results are reported as median (interquartile range). Both menthol gels successfully delivered a cooling sensation, with a significantly greater response for HIGH (5.0 [4.0–5.0]) compared with LOW (3.5 [3.0–4.0]; p = .022) and CON (1.0 [1.0–2.0]; p < .0005), and LOW compared with CON (p < .0005). Ratings of mint flavor intensity followed the same trend as cooling sensation, while ratings of overall experience were significantly worse for HIGH (2.0 [1.0–3.0]) compared with LOW (4.0 [2.0–4.0]; p = .001) and CON (4.0 [3.0–4.0]; p < .0005). An energy gel with the addition of menthol at 0.1–0.5% provides a cooling sensation for athletes with a dose–response when ingested during exercise. The 0.1% concentration is recommended to maximize the overall experience of the gel.

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Wesley J. Wilson, Ali Brian and Luke E. Kelly

Novice teachers struggle with assessing fundamental motor skills. With growing time constraints, not to mention the current COVID-19 pandemic, professional development needs to be streamlined, asynchronous, and online to meet the needs of current teachers. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and efficacy of the Motor Skill Assessment Program (MSAP) in increasing the assessment competency of the underhand roll among physical educators and to examine which factors associated with posttest assessment scores. Twenty-nine physical educators (female = 21, male = 8) completed the program. Paired sample t tests were used to determine the efficacy of the program in improving assessment accuracy from pretest to posttest. Associations between posttest scores assessed which factors predicted success within the program addressing feasibility. Program completion resulted in significantly better posttest assessment scores among participants. Guided practice attempts and average scores on guided practice tests correlated most strongly and positively with posttest scores. The assessment training program increased the assessment competency of physical educators. Guided practice and using practice tests best predicted participant learning. Now that the MSAP results with teacher learning and is feasible, this efficacy trial should be scaled up to feature a control group and more skills.

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Mariana B. Pinto, Patrícia M. Bock, Andressa S.O. Schein, Juliana Portes, Raíssa B. Monteiro, Beatriz D. Schaan and Beatriz D. Schaan

This study evaluated the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in glucose control and respiratory muscle function in patients with diabetes. It was a randomized clinical trial conducted at the Physiopathology Laboratory of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Patients with Type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to IMT or placebo-IMT (P-IMT), performed at 30% and 2% of maximal inspiratory pressure, respectively, every day for 12 weeks. The main outcome measures were HbA1c, glycemia, and respiratory muscle function. Thirty patients were included: 73.3% women, 59.6 ± 10.7 years old, HbA1c 8.7 ± 0.9% (71.6 ± 9.8 mmol/mol), and glycemia 181.8 ± 57.8 mg/dl (10.5 ± 3.2 mmol/L). At the end of the training, HbA1c was 8.2 ±0.3% (66.1 ± 3.3 mmol/mol) and 8.7 ± 0.3% (71.6 ± 3.3 mmol/mol) for the IMT and P-IMT groups, respectively (p = .8). Fasting glycemia decreased in both groups with no difference after training although it was lower in IMT at 8 weeks: 170.0 ± 11.4 mg/dl(9.4 ± 0.6 mmol/L) and 184.4 ± 15.0 mg/dl (10.2 ± 0.8 mmol/L) for IMT and P-IMT, respectively (p < .05). Respiratory endurance time improved in the IMT group (baseline = 325.9 ± 51.1 s and 305.0 ± 37.8 s; after 12 weeks = 441.1 ± 61.7 s and 250.7 ± 39.0 s for the IMT and P-IMT groups, respectively; p < .05). Considering that glucose control did not improve, IMT should not be used as an alternative to other types of exercise in diabetes. Higher exercise intensities or longer training periods might produce better results. The clinical trials identifier is NCT 03191435.

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Yi Wang, Wing K. Lam, Charis K. Wong, Lok Y. Park, Mohammad F. Tan and Aaron K.L. Leung

This study examined the effect of foot orthoses used on ground reaction forces, ankle, and knee kinematics when running at preferred and nonpreferred speeds. Sixteen runners ran on instrumented treadmills at various speeds (90%, 100%, and 110% of preferred speed) when wearing arch-support and flat-control orthoses. Two-way repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the mean and coefficient of variation of all variables. Results indicated that arch-support orthoses experienced larger maximum loading rates than flat-control orthoses (P = .017, 95% CI, 2.22 to 19.53). Slower speed was related to smaller loading rates (preferred: P = .002, 95% CI, −17.02 to −4.20; faster: P = .003, 95% CI, −29.78 to −6.17), shorter stride length (preferred: P < .001, 95% CI, −0.204 to −0.090; faster: P < .001, 95% CI, −0.382 to −0.237), and longer contact time (preferred: P < .001, 95% CI, 0.006–0.021; faster: 95% CI, 0.012–0.042). In arch-support condition, preferred speed induced higher stride length coefficient of variation (P = .046, 95% CI, 0.035–1.117) than faster speed, while displaying no differences in flat-control condition. These findings suggest that the use of arch-support orthoses would influence impact loading, but not spatial-temporal and joint kinematics in recreational runners.