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André Moura, Ann MacPhail, Amândio Graça, and Paula Batista

Purpose : Improving students’ learning is dependent on students’ participation, meaningfulness, and value of the teaching–learning process. This study explores students’ learning experiences when undertaking the role of co-constructors and co- and self-regulators in a cooperative learning environment. Methods : The study included 110 school students aged between 15 and 18 years from four physical education preservice teachers’ classes. Data were collected through student focus group interviews, a postteaching units’ survey, students’ class reflections, and the researcher’s field notes. Results/Discussion : Data report that (a) having access to learning goals and assessment criteria was essential for the co-construction and co- and self-regulation processes, (b) there is a positive reciprocal relationship between students’ involvement in co-construction and co- and self-regulations, and (c) co-construction and co- and self-regulations were strengthened by students’ involvement in cooperative learning and vice versa.

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Siu Ming Choi, Raymond Kim Wai Sum, Elean Fung Lin Leung, and Cindy Sit

Purpose: This prospective cohort study investigated the impact of online and hybrid teaching of university-required physical education on students’ physical literacy-related correlates. To avoid the widespread pandemic, the university decided to offer courses online through video conferencing or via a hybrid mode. When compared with face-to-face instruction, these formats may intensely affect students’ physical literacy journey during early adulthood. Methods: A group of 1,738 students (42% males and 58% females) aged 18.52 (±1.29) responded to a three-phase online survey in various courses. Results: The structural equation modeling determined that motivation and physical activity levels were negatively related to physical competence and knowledge and understanding. Further repeated-measure analyses recognized the interaction effect of amotivation. Results indicated that participants in the online teaching mode may experience a learning predicament over those in the hybrid one. Conclusion: Practically, the physical literacy teaching strategies in nurturing motivation and physical competence should be reinforced.

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Ben D. Kern, David Bellar, Wesley J. Wilson, and Samiyah Rasheed

Purpose: To examine socialization experiences of physical educators who deliver strength and conditioning (S&C) programming, particularly the development of subjective theories, expertise, orientations, and perceived mattering. Methods: Thirty-one secondary school physical educators providing S&C instruction/supervision as part of required duties completed in-depth interviews with Occupational Socialization Theory as a guiding framework for analysis. Results: Themes developed were (a) acculturation and organizational socialization influence beliefs, (b) S&C professional development is scarce, (c) S&C in physical education is a sporting endeavor, (d) blurred lines between teaching and coaching, and (e) S&C-related programs matter. Discussion: Physical educators delivering S&C programming lack adequate preservice preparation and professional development, and experience both role conflict and decreased marginalization. Physical education teacher education programs should offer more formal S&C training for safe and effective instruction/supervision. Schools should provide S&C-related professional development to maximize student learning and safety and avoid potential legal liability.

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George Wilson, Carl Langan-Evans, Dan Martin, Andreas M. Kasper, James P. Morton, and Graeme L. Close

Jockeys are unique given that they make weight daily and, therefore, often resort to fasting and dehydration. Through increasing daily food frequency (during energy deficit), we have reported short-term improvements in jockey’s body composition. While these changes were observed over 6–12 weeks with food provided, it is unclear whether such improvements can be maintained over an extended period during free-living conditions. We, therefore, assessed jockeys over 5 years using dual X-ray absorptiometry, resting metabolic rate, and hydration measurements. Following dietary and exercise advice, jockeys reduced fat mass from baseline of 7.1 ± 1.4 kg to 6.1 ± 0.7 kg and 6.1 ± 0.6 kg (p < .001) at Years 1 and 5, respectively. In addition, fat-free mass was maintained with resting metabolic rate increasing significantly from 1,500 ± 51 kcal/day at baseline to 1,612 ± 95 kcal/day and 1,620 ± 92 kcal/day (p < .001) at Years 1 and 5, respectively. Urine osmolality reduced from 816 ± 236 mOsmol/L at baseline to 564 ± 175 mOsmol/L and 524 ± 156 mOsmol/L (p < .001) at Years 1 and 5, respectively. The percent of jockeys consuming a regular breakfast significantly increased from 48% at baseline to 83% (p = .009) and 87% (p = .003) at Years 1 and 5, alongside regular lunch from 35% to 92% (p < .001) and 96% (p < .001) from baseline to Years 1 and 5, respectively. In conclusion, we report that improved body composition can be maintained in free-living jockeys over a 5-year period when appropriate guidance has been provided.

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Charlie R. Ottinger, James J. Tufano, Kristen C. Cochrane-Snyman, Raad H. Gheith, and Jeffrey M. McBride

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore whether offset loading in the barbell squat altered ground-reaction force (GRF) and muscle activation in the dominant (D) and nondominant (ND) lower limb compared to traditional squats. Methods: Twelve well-trained men (age 26.4 [3.2] y; 10.3 [1.9] y experience) performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 60% of their previously measured 1-repetition maximum. Sets were quasi-randomized between traditional loading (TDL), dominant-side offset loading (OS-D), and nondominant-side offset loading (OS-ND). All repetitions were performed on a dual force plate with electromyography sensors on the prime mover muscles of the squat. GRF symmetry was assessed using the symmetry index (SI) to determine the direction (D [+] or ND [−]) and magnitude (%) of the asymmetry. Finally, the first 3 and final 3 repetitions of each set were compared for compensatory changes in symmetry. Results: OS-D induced a significant change in limb SI relative to TDL (5.21% vs 1.44%; P = .011); however, no significant difference in limb SI was seen between TDL and OS-ND (−0.66% vs 1.44%; P = .278). No asymmetries between D and ND muscle activation were present in any condition. TDL and OS-D squats exhibited significant improvements in limb SI between the first 3 and final 3 repetitions (P = .035 and .011, respectively); however, no such improvement was seen in OS-ND. Conclusions: OS-D is capable of significantly altering GRF limb SI in a bilateral squat; however, OS-ND appears to exhibit no GRF or electromyography effects relative to TDL. Thus, the results of this study do not support the use of OS-ND in the pursuit of strengthening a weaker limb, suggesting that unilateral training may be a preferred mode of exercise for this desired outcome.

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George H. Franklin, Daniel J. Brown, Emma Vickers, and Grace E. Harrison

The number of elite athletes from the United Kingdom choosing to migrate to the United States is increasing. Grounded in the push–pull framework, this was the first study to exclusively explore the motivations and experiences of elite British female gymnasts who migrated to American universities and competed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Data were collected using semistructured interviews with seven former gymnasts and analyzed using thematic analysis. The results document how this pathway provided gymnasts with an opportunity to extend their career in a positive environment, escaping the intense and autocratic culture that dominated gymnastics in Britain. Moreover, this pathway facilitated lasting athletic and personal development including enhanced retirement from the sport. From a practice standpoint, it appears important that gymnasts be educated about the pathways available to them and that British sport organizations be supported in reshaping their environments to create more desirable and sustainable systems.

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Larissa Di Bella, Kenji Doma, Wade Heath Sinclair, and Jonathan Douglas Connor

Purpose: This crossover trial compared the effects of varying feedback approaches on sprint performance, motivation, and affective mood states in female athletes. Methods: Eligibility criteria were being competitive female athletes, where participants completed sprint tests in 4 randomized feedback conditions on grass, including augmented feedback (sprint time; AUG-FB), technical feedback (cues; TECH-FB), a competition-driven drill (CDD) sprinting against an opponent, and a control condition (no feedback; CON). Participants completed a 20-m sprint (maximum sprint), 30-m curved agility sprint, and a repeated sprint ability test, with sprint times, motivation level, and mood states recorded. The participants were blinded from the number of trials during the repeated sprint ability test. Results: About 12 rugby league players completed all feedback conditions. The maximum sprint times were faster for AUG-FB (3.54 [0.16] s) and CDD (3.54 [0.16] s) compared with TECH-FB (3.64 [0.16] s), while there were no differences compared with CON (3.58 [0.17] s). The curved agility sprint times were faster for AUG-FB (5.42 [0.20] s) compared with TECH-FB (5.61 [0.21] s) and CON (5.57 [0.24] s), although CDD (5.38 [0.26] s) produced faster sprint times than TECH-FB. Effort and value were higher with AUG-FB (6.31 [0.68]; 6.53 [0.05]) compared with CON (5.99 [0.60]; 4.75 [2.07]), while CON exhibited lower enjoyment ratings (4.68 [0.95]) compared with other feedback conditions (AUG-FB: 5.54 [0.72]; CDD: 5.56 [0.67]; TECH-FB: 5.60 [0.56]). Conclusions: Providing AUG-FB prior to sprint tasks enhances more immediate performance outcomes than TECH-FB. AUG-FB also benefited athlete enjoyment, task effort, and coaching value. Female athletes should receive AUG-FB in testing and training environments, to improve immediate physical performance and motivation.

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Scott A. Conger, Lara M. Tuthill, and Mindy L. Millard-Stafford

Whether caffeine (CAF) increases fat metabolism remains debatable. Using systematic review coupled with meta-analysis, our aim was to determine effects of CAF on fat metabolism and the relevant factors moderating this effect. Electronic databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science were searched using the following string: CAF AND (fat OR lipid) AND (metabolism OR oxidation). A meta-analytic approach aggregated data from 94 studies examining CAF’s effect on fat metabolism assessed by different biomarkers. The overall effect size (ES) was 0.39 (95% confidence interval [CI] [0.30, 0.47], p < .001), indicating a small effect of CAF to increase fat metabolism; however, ES was significantly higher (p < .001) based on blood biomarkers (e.g., free fatty acids, glycerol) (ES = 0.55, 95% CI [0.43, 0.67]) versus expired gas analysis (respiratory exchange ratio, calculated fat oxidation) (ES = 0.26, 95% CI [0.16, 0.37]), although both were greater than zero. Fat metabolism increased to a greater extent (p = .02) during rest (ES = 0.51, 95% CI [0.41, 0.62]) versus exercise (ES = 0.35, 95% CI [0.26, 0.44]) across all studies, although ES was not different for studies reporting both conditions (ES = 0.49 and 0.44, respectively). There were no subgroup differences based on participants’ fitness level, sex, or CAF dosage. CAF ingestion increases fat metabolism but is more consistent with blood biomarkers versus whole-body gas exchange measures. CAF has a small effect during rest across all studies, although similar to exercise when compared within the same study. CAF dosage did not moderate this effect.