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Yi Wang, Wing K. Lam, Charis K. Wong, Lok Y. Park, Mohammad F. Tan and Aaron K.L. Leung
This study examined the effect of foot orthoses used on ground reaction forces, ankle, and knee kinematics when running at preferred and nonpreferred speeds. Sixteen runners ran on instrumented treadmills at various speeds (90%, 100%, and 110% of preferred speed) when wearing arch-support and flat-control orthoses. Two-way repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the mean and coefficient of variation of all variables. Results indicated that arch-support orthoses experienced larger maximum loading rates than flat-control orthoses (P = .017, 95% CI, 2.22 to 19.53). Slower speed was related to smaller loading rates (preferred: P = .002, 95% CI, −17.02 to −4.20; faster: P = .003, 95% CI, −29.78 to −6.17), shorter stride length (preferred: P < .001, 95% CI, −0.204 to −0.090; faster: P < .001, 95% CI, −0.382 to −0.237), and longer contact time (preferred: P < .001, 95% CI, 0.006–0.021; faster: 95% CI, 0.012–0.042). In arch-support condition, preferred speed induced higher stride length coefficient of variation (P = .046, 95% CI, 0.035–1.117) than faster speed, while displaying no differences in flat-control condition. These findings suggest that the use of arch-support orthoses would influence impact loading, but not spatial-temporal and joint kinematics in recreational runners.
Chris Knoester and B. David Ridpath
Traditionally, public opinions have largely opposed further compensation for U.S. college athletes, beyond the costs of going to school. This study uses new data from the National Sports and Society Survey (N = 3,993) to assess recent public opinions about allowing college athletes to be paid more than it costs them to go to school. The authors found that a majority of U.S. adults now support, rather than oppose, allowing college athletes to be paid. Also, the authors found that White adults are especially unlikely, and Black adults are especially likely, to support allowing payment. Furthermore, recognition of racial/ethnic discrimination is positively, and indicators of traditionalism are negatively, associated with support for allowing college athletes to be paid.