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Rachel R. Kleis, Matt C. Hoch, Rachel Hogg-Graham and Johanna M. Hoch

Background: Despite the known risks of physical inactivity, only 50% of adults meet the recommended guidelines for physical activity (PA). Therefore, numerous interventions have been designed to increase PA across a lifespan. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of interventions based on the transtheoretical model to improve PA in healthy adults. Methods: Electronic databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, Sociological Collection, and SPORTDiscus) were systematically searched from January 2001 to May 2020. Results: A total of 11 randomized pretest–posttest studies were included in this review. Ten studies utilized a subjective measurement of PA, and 3 studies included an objective measure. Five studies demonstrated significant improvements in PA for the transtheoretical model-based intervention groups compared with control/comparison groups; however, 6 studies demonstrated no differences between groups. Conclusion: The findings suggest that there is inconsistent evidence to support the use of interventions based on the transtheoretical model to improve PA in adult populations. Interventions were more successful when materials were delivered via in-person counseling and when study participants were in the precontemplation or contemplation phases at baseline.

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Spencer E. Boyle, Melissa A. Fothergill, John Metcalfe, Sarah Docherty and Crystal F. Haskell-Ramsay

Background: Physical activity provides a number of physical and psychological benefits. Multimodal proprioceptive exercise represents a useful balance-based exercise with the potential to reduce falls in older adults. Previous research has also indicated cognitive benefits following multimodal proprioceptive exercise in young and older adults. This study aimed to assess cognition and mood following 2 types of physical activity (multimodal proprioception vs yoga) compared with control (classroom-based) in healthy older adults. Method: Nineteen older adults (Mage = 65, sex = 9 males) participated in this randomized controlled crossover trial. Participants completed a 20-minute multimodal proprioceptive exercise class, 20-minute yoga session, and 20-minute classroom-based control. Numeric working memory and mood were assessed before and immediately following each of the interventions. Results: The multimodal proprioceptive intervention significantly reduced numeric working memory reaction time versus the yoga (P = .043) and control (P = .023) group. There were no differences found for accuracy or mood. Conclusions: These results indicate that multimodal proprioceptive exercise is worthy of further investigation as an alternative mode of exercise alongside the more traditional aerobic and strength-based exercise for healthy older adults.

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Maria Kavussanu, Philip Hurst, Mariya Yukhymenko-Lescroart, Evangelos Galanis, Ailish King, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis and Christopher Ring

Objectives: The authors aimed to develop a moral intervention and to determine whether it was more effective in preventing doping than an educational (i.e., knowledge-based) intervention; their primary outcome was doping likelihood, and the secondary outcomes were moral identity, moral disengagement, moral atmosphere, and anticipated guilt. Methods: Eligible athletes (N = 303) in the United Kingdom and Greece took part in the study. The authors randomly assigned 33 clubs to either the moral or the educational intervention. They measured outcomes pre- and postintervention and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Results: Athletes in both interventions in both countries reported lower doping likelihood and moral disengagement and higher guilt from pre- to postintervention. These effects were maintained at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. There were no effects on moral identity or moral atmosphere. Conclusions: In addition to disseminating information about doping, doping prevention programs should include content that focuses on moral variables.

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Farzin Halabchi, Reza Mazaheri, Khashayar Sabeti, Masoud Yunesian, Zahra Alizadeh, Zahra Ahmadinejad, Seyed Mojtaba Aghili and Zahra Tavakol

Purpose: To compare the severity outcomes of COVID-19 disease between patients with and without regular sports participation. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, the authors investigated all patients who visited the emergency department of Imam Khomeini hospital with signs and symptoms of COVID-19 from February 20 to April 20, 2020. Then the authors assessed all patient outcomes (outpatient vs hospitalization or death). Finally, the authors compared the outcomes between athletes with regular sports participation and others, adjusting for confounding factors of age and sex. Results: Of all 4694 adult patients, 249 individuals (137 males and 112 females with mean [SD] age of 36.45 [9.77] y) had regular participation in different sport disciplines. Overall, 30 (12%) athletes were hospitalized or died (30 and 0, respectively) compared with 957 (21.5%) nonathletes (878 and 79, respectively). Athletes with regular sports participation were 1.49 times less likely to be hospitalized (P = .044). Conclusions: Regular sports participation may positively affect the clinical outcome, regardless of confounding factors of age and sex. The probability of hospitalization in athletes with regular sports participation was 33% lower than nonathletes. However, more longitudinal studies are needed to determine the causal effects.