You are looking at 1 - 10 of 5,848 items for :

  • Sport and Exercise Science/Kinesiology x
  • Psychology and Behavior in Sport/Exercise x
Clear All
Restricted access

Katrina M. Moss, Annette J. Dobson, Kimberley L. Edwards, Kylie D. Hesketh, Yung-Ting Chang and Gita D. Mishra

Background: Play equipment at home could be targeted in interventions to increase children’s physical activity (PA), but evidence is mixed, potentially because current methods do not reflect children’s lived experience. This study investigated associations between combinations of equipment and PA. Methods: Data were from the Mothers and their Children’s Health study and the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Mothers (n = 2409) indicated the types of fixed active (eg, trampolines), portable active (eg, bicycles), and electronic (eg, computers) equipment at home, and the number of days children (n = 4092, aged 5–12 y, 51% boys) met PA guidelines. Latent class analysis was used to identify combinations of equipment, and linear regressions were used to investigate associations with PA. Results: Compared with children with high active (fixed and portable) and medium electronic equipment, children with portable active and medium (B = −0.53; 95% confidence interval, −0.72 to −0.34) or high (B = −0.58; 95% confidence interval, −0.83 to −0.33) electronic equipment met the guidelines on fewer days. Children with similar active equipment (but more electronic equipment) met the PA guidelines on fewer days (mean difference = −0.51, SE = 0.14, P = .002). Conclusion: Having the right combination of play equipment at home may be important for children’s PA.

Restricted access

Kristy Martin, Kevin G. Thompson, Richard Keegan and Ben Rattray

The aim of this study was to investigate whether individuals who engage in more frequent self-regulation are less susceptible to mental fatigue. Occupational cognitive demand and participation in sports or exercise were quantified as activities requiring self-regulation. Cardiorespiratory fitness was also assessed. On separate occasions, participants either completed 90 min of an incongruent Stroop task (mental exertion condition) or watched a 90-min documentary (control condition). Participants then completed a cycling time-to-exhaustion (physical endurance) test. There was no difference in the mean time to exhaustion between conditions, although individual responses varied. Occupational cognitive demand, participation in sports or exercise, and cardiorespiratory fitness predicted the change in endurance performance (p = .026, adjusted R 2 = .279). Only cognitive demand added significantly to the prediction (p = .024). Participants who reported higher levels of occupational cognitive demand better maintained endurance performance following mental exertion.

Restricted access

Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

Restricted access

Kavita A. Gavand, Kelli L. Cain, Terry L. Conway, Brian E. Saelens, Lawrence D. Frank, Jacqueline Kerr, Karen Glanz and James F. Sallis

Background: To examine relations between parents’ perceived neighborhood recreation environments and multiple measures of adolescent physical activity (PA). Methods: Participants (N = 928; age 14.1 [1.4] y, 50.4% girls, and 33.4% nonwhite/Hispanic) and their parents were recruited. Teen moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was assessed with 7-day accelerometry. Self-reported total PA, PA near home, and PA at recreation locations were also assessed. Proximity of home to 8 types of recreation facilities was reported by parents. Mixed-model linear regressions relating environments to various measures of PA were adjusted for demographics and neighborhood clustering. Results: Perceiving more availability of recreation facilities around home was related to higher reports of days per week with 60+ minutes of PA (b = 0.153; P < .05), reported PA time near home (b = 0.152; P < .001), PA time at recreation facilities (b = 0.161; P < .001), accelerometer-measured total MVPA (b = 1.741; P < .05), and nonschool MVPA (b = 1.508; P < .01). Adolescents living in lowest quintile of recreation facility availability averaged 27.6 (3.2) minutes per day of total MVPA versus 49.8 (3.5) minutes per day for those living in highest quintile. Conclusions: Adolescents living in neighborhoods that parents reported having more availability of recreation facilities around homes had higher activity across 5 indicators of PA.

Restricted access

Ian M. Greenlund, Piersan E. Suriano, Steven J. Elmer, Jason R. Carter and John J. Durocher

Background: Sedentary activity and sitting for at least 10 hours per day can increase the risk for cardiovascular disease by more than 60%. Use of standing desks may decrease sedentary time and improve cardiovascular health. Acute standing lowers pulse wave velocity (PWV), but chronic effects remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of chronic standing desk use on arterial stiffness versus seated controls. Methods: A total of 48 adults participated in this study. Twenty-four participants qualified as seated desk users (age 41 [10] y, body mass index 25 [4] kg/m2) and 24 as standing desk users (age 45 [12] y, body mass index 25 [5] kg/m2). Arterial stiffness was assessed as PWV within the aorta, arm, and leg. Results: Carotid–femoral PWV (cfPWV) was not different between seated (6.6 [1.3] m/s) and standing (6.9 [1.3] m/s) groups (P = .47). Similarly, there were no differences in arm or leg PWV between groups (P = .13 and P = .66, respectively). A secondary analysis of traditional factors of age and aerobic fitness revealed significant differences in cfPWV in seated and standing desk participants. Age also significantly influenced cfPWV across conditions. Conclusions: Standing for >50% of a workday did not affect PWV. Consistent with previous research, fitness and age are important modulators of arterial stiffness.

Restricted access

Dylan C. Perry, Christopher C. Moore, Colleen J. Sands, Elroy J. Aguiar, Zachary R. Gould, Catrine Tudor-Locke and Scott W. Ducharme

Background: While previous studies indicate an auditory metronome can entrain cadence (in steps per minute), music may also evoke prescribed cadences and metabolic intensities. Purpose: To determine how modulating the tempo of a single commercial song influences adults’ ability to entrain foot strikes while walking and how this entrainment affects metabolic intensity. Methods: Twenty healthy adults (10 men and 10 women; mean [SD]: age 23.7 [2.7] y, height 172.8 [9.0] cm, mass 71.5 [16.2] kg) walked overground on a large circular pathway for six 5-min conditions; 3 self-selected speeds (slow, normal, and fast); and 3 trials listening to a song with its tempo modulated to 80, 100, and 125 beats per minute. During music trials, participants were instructed to synchronize their step timing with the music tempo. Cadence was measured via direct observation, and metabolic intensity (metabolic equivalents) was assessed using indirect calorimetry. Results: Participants entrained their cadences to the music tempos (mean absolute percentage error = 5.3% [5.8%]). Entraining to a music tempo of 100 beats per minute yielded ≥3 metabolic equivalents in 90% of participants. Trials with music entrainment exhibited greater metabolic intensity compared with self-paced trials (repeated-measures analysis of variance, F 1,19 = 8.05, P = .01). Conclusion: This study demonstrates the potential for using music to evoke predictable metabolic intensities.

Restricted access

Chelsea L. Kracht, Elizabeth K. Webster and Amanda E. Staiano

Background: Little is known about variation in meeting the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines (including physical activity [PA], sleep, and screen time [ST]) in early childhood. The aim was to evaluate sociodemographic differences in meeting the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines. Methods: Parents of 3–4 year old children reported sociodemographic information and ST. Sleep and PA were measured using accelerometry, and height and weight were objectively measured. The 24-Hour Movement Guidelines include daily PA (total PA: ≥3 h; including ≥1 h of moderate to vigorous), sleep (10–13 h), and ST (≤1 h). Meeting guidelines by age, sex, race, poverty level, and weight status were assessed using chi-square and linear regression models. Results: Of 107 children, 57% were white and 26% lived in households at or below the poverty level. Most children met the PA (91.5%) and sleep (86.9%) guidelines, but few met ST (14.0%) or all 3 (11.3%) guidelines. African American children and children who lived at or below the poverty level were less likely to meet the sleep, ST, and all 3 guidelines compared with others (P < .01 for all). There were no other differences. Conclusion: These results suggest future interventions should focus on reducing differences in movement, namely in sleep and ST.

Restricted access

Kayla J. Nuss, Joseph L. Sanford, Lucas J. Archambault, Ethan J. Schlemer, Sophie Blake, Jimikaye Beck Courtney, Nicholas A. Hulett and Kaigang Li

Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) estimated by the Apple Watch Series 1 worn both on the wrist and the upper arm. Methods: Thirty healthy, young adults (15 females) wore the two monitors while participating in a maximal exercise test. Criterion measures were obtained from the Parvo Medics TrueOne 2400 Metabolic Cart and an electrocardiograph. Results: The HR estimations of the arm-worn (AW) Apple Watch had the highest agreement with the electrocardiogram, with mean absolute percent error (MAPE) of <2.5% for the entire sample, for males, and for females, at all exercise intensities. The HR estimations of the wrist-worn Apple Watch had MAPEs ranging from 3.61% (females at very light intensity) to 14.97% (males at very vigorous intensity). When estimating EE for total exercise bout in the entire sample, the arm-worn Apple Watch overestimated EE, with a MAPE of 39.63%, whereas the wrist-worn underestimated EE, with a MAPE of 32.28%. Both the arm- and wrist-worn overestimated EE for females and underestimated EE for males. Conclusion: Wearing the Apple Watch Series 1 on the upper arm versus the wrist improves the MAPE for HR estimations, but does not improve MAPE for the EE calculations when compared to a criterion measure.

Restricted access

Alexander H.K. Montoye, Jordana Dahmen, Nigel Campbell and Christopher P. Connolly

Purpose: This purpose of this study was to validate consumer-based and research-grade PA monitors for step counting and Calorie expenditure during treadmill walking. Methods: Participants (n = 40, 24 in second trimester and 16 in third trimester) completed five 2-minute walking activities (1.5–3.5 miles/hour in 0.5 mile/hour increments) while wearing five PA monitors (right hip: ActiGraph Link [AG]; left hip: Omron HJ-720 [OM]; left front pants pocket: New Lifestyles NL 2000 [NL]; non-dominant wrist: Fitbit Flex [FF]; right ankle: StepWatch [SW]). Mean absolute percent error (MAPE) was used to determine device accuracy for step counting (all monitors) and Calorie expenditure (AG with Freedson equations and FF) compared to criterion measures (hand tally for steps, indirect Calorimetry for Calories). Results: For step counting, the SW had MAPE ≤ 10% at all walking speeds, and the OM and NL had MAPE ≤ 10% for all speeds but 1.5 miles/hour. The AG had MAPE ≤ 10% for only 3.0–3.5 miles/hour speeds, and the FF had high MAPE for all speeds. For Calories, the FF and AG had MAPE > 10% for all speeds, with the FF overestimating Calories expended. Trimester did not affect PA monitor accuracy for step counting but did affect accuracy for Calorie expenditure. Conclusion: The ankle-worn SW and hip-worn OM had high accuracy for measuring step counts at all treadmill walking speeds, whereas the NL had high accuracy for speeds ≥2.0 miles/hour. Conversely, the monitors tested for Calorie expenditure have poor accuracy and should be interpreted cautiously for walking behavior.