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Brian Dauenhauer, Jennifer M. Krause, Dannon G. Cox, Katie L. Hodgin, Jaimie McMullen, and Russell L. Carson

Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of 1-day workshops on teachers’ knowledge, practices, and dispositions using known characteristics of quality professional development and Guskey’s five levels of professional development evaluation. Method: Eight workshops were evaluated over a 2-year period using pre/post surveys, end-of-workshop surveys, observations, interviews, and artifacts. Results: Participants reported high levels of satisfaction and trainer effectiveness scores at the end of workshops. Statistical analyses revealed improvements in four of six outcome variables 4 weeks after workshop completion: self-reported knowledge, utilization of implementation strategies, presence of a community of continued learning, and teacher efficacy. Qualitative data corroborated these results but offered mixed evidence of teacher implementation and improved student outcomes. Discussion/Conclusion: Findings confirm that 1-day workshops aligned with characteristics of quality professional development are highly valued by participants and can improve teachers’ knowledge and efficacy, but teacher practice and student learning may be more difficult to influence and document.

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Scott W.T. McNamara, Kevin Andrew Richards, Alyssa M. Trad, Sarena Abdallah, and Lauren Hill

Background: While preliminary research has indicated that adapted physical education (APE) teachers experience marginalization, little research has examined how specific relationships factor into these experiences. Purpose: This study sought to examine APE teachers’ experiences and perceptions of school administrators. Methodology: Occupational socialization theory was used to guide semistructured interviews with 24 APE teachers about their relationship with administrators. Results: A collaborative approach to qualitative data analysis was used to construct four themes: (a) APE teachers are socialized to be marginal and settle for inadequate support; (b) negative impressions of general physical education led to a similar outlook on APE; (c) administrators focus on compliance with mandates over quality practice in APE; and (d) support depends on administrative effort, and many administrators look uncomfortable in the gym. Conclusion: Although these findings shed light on the complex, and often absent, relationship between APE teachers and their administrators, still additional research is needed.

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Kevin Andrew Richards, Scott McNamara, Alyssa M. Trad, Lauren Hill, and Sarena Abdallah

School administrators represent key agents of socialization for teachers within their schools, including adapted physical educators who design and implement instruction for youth with disabilities, often across multiple school sites. The purpose of this study was to understand how adapted physical educators navigate and build relationships with administrators in the schools where they teach. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 24 adapted physical educators from the U.S. state of California and analyzed using a multiphase approach. Analysis suggested both the importance of and challenges with building effective relationships with administrators. Themes included the following: (a) Administrators do not understand adapted physical education, which impacts programs and students; (b) the importance of relationship building in cultivating principal support; and (c) relationship development requires intentionality, but results in trust and motivation. Results are discussed using role socialization theory, and recommendations for the preparation of both adapted physical educators and school principals are discussed.

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Maryam Marashi, Sabrina Malouka, Tahla den Houdyker, and Catherine M. Sabiston

Despite increasing access to sport and exercise opportunities, girls and women in Canada continue to face gender disparity in sport participation. Several media campaigns have emerged to address this disparity and advocate for gender equity in sport. However, there is little understanding or evaluation of the content of these media campaigns. Informed by sport participation research, the She’s Got It All campaign was designed to highlight the challenges and intersecting disadvantages that girls and women face in sport. The purpose of the current study was to assess the textual and visual content of this campaign. The posters (N = 48) were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis (text) and deductive content analysis (visual) to identify the characteristics of the images and the themes in the messages. Based on the thematic analysis, seven main themes pertaining to girls’ and women’s barriers to sport participation are identified including physiology, gendered social behaviors, intrapersonal beliefs, environmental contexts, stereotypes, female representation, and interpersonal support. Based on the content analysis, most of the models presented in the posters are perceived as White and average-sized adult women, with visible muscle definition, slightly or nonrevealing clothing, and performing an individual sport. The poster visual and text material seem to miss opportunities to highlight the experiences of girls and women identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer (or sometimes questioning), and others and those classified as lower socioeconomic status. These findings provide foundational information for future research and media campaign designed to target gender equity in sport.

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Alyssa Abreu, Jessica Thompson, Danielle N. Cofield, Mark D. Faries, and Eric J. Jones

Physical inactivity is common among women and a quarter of college-aged women are classified as overweight or obese, making this population an important target for obesity prevention. Fitness testing is commonplace, and practitioners can hold an underlying belief that discrepancies will promote positive responses. However, little research has examined the affective responses to fitness testing in adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the affective responses to common fitness testing, while examining relationships to physical self to help elucidate why some respond to such testing and others do not. Forty-eight college-aged women were presented with their discrepancy from a normative standard across six fitness tests. Findings support previous conceptualizations on discrepancies and affective responses, in that greater negative discrepancies from normative standards were associated with greater changes in negative feeling states. In addition, the results suggest that only certain discrepancies pose a threat to perceived satisfaction with one’s physical self (i.e., self-concept)—mainly though subdomains related to body appearance and aerobic fitness. In other words, the greater the perceived satisfaction of self, the greater negative emotional response was experienced to the specific test discrepancy. The notation of “threats” to important domains of self-concept might help explain why fitness testing that alerts individuals where they are discrepant produce behavioral changes in some but not others. Professionals should consider the impact of providing fitness test discrepancies on negative affective responses, with the possible impact on motivation and future behavior choices to reduce the discrepancy.

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Solange Parra-Soto, Craig Tumblety, Carolina Araya, Leandro F.M. Rezende, Frederick K. Ho, Jill P. Pell, and Carlos Celis-Morales

Purpose: Although physical activity (PA) has been consistently associated with breast cancer, existing evidence is limited to self-reported physical activity, which is prone to dilution bias. Therefore, this aims to examine the associations of device-measured PA domains with breast cancer risk and whether it differs by menopausal status. Methods: Prospective cohort study. Data from 48,286 women from the UK Biobank cohort were analyzed. A wrist triaxial accelerometer was used to collect physical activity data for light, moderate, vigorous, moderate to vigorous, and total PA. Cox proportional models were performed to examine the association between PA domains, menopausal status, and breast cancer risk. Results: Eight hundred thirty-six breast cancer cases were diagnosed during a median of 5.4 years (interquartile range: 4.7–5.9). For total PA, those in the most active quartile had a 26% lower risk of breast cancer (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61–0.91) compared with those least active. Similar results were observed for light PA (HR: 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64–0.96), and moderate to vigorous PA (HR: 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64–0.96). However, moderate PA (HR: 0.73; 95% CI, 0.44–1.19) and vigorous PA (HR: 0.77; 95% CI, 0.56–1.05) was nonsignificant. No evidence of interaction between PA domains and menopause status was found (P > .10). Conclusion: High levels of PA are associated with a lower risk of breast cancer with similar magnitude of associations observed across different intensity domains.

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Dian Listiarini, Wara Kushartanti, and Novita Intan Arovah

While the role of exercise in managing obesity has been suggested, little is known about the effect of caffeine supplementation in the exercise program on body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (%BF), and cholesterol. This research compared the effect of aerobic exercise with and without caffeine on BMI, %BF, and cholesterol level in obese Asian women. Twenty-seven participants were randomly allocated into three groups, which were an aerobic exercise without caffeine (A; n = 9), an aerobic exercise with 3 mg/body weight—caffeine (AC; n = 9), and a control group (C; n = 9). The exercise was a 45-min exercise training at 60%–75% maximum heart rate conducted three times weekly for 8 weeks. The mixed-method repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess the effect of treatments and time (i.e., pretest and posttest) on the outcome measures, followed by simple effect analyses with Bonferroni correction. While there was a significant improvement in BMI and %BF from the pretest to posttest, this was superseded by a time-by-treatment interaction effect. For the time-by-treatment interaction, the cholesterol levels in the A and AC groups were significantly lower than in C, suggesting that the benefit of the exercise program is most evident in controlling cholesterol. In conclusion, the 3 mg/kg body weight caffeine does not appear to provide additional benefit in the 8-week moderate-intensity aerobic exercise session in improving BMI, %BF, and cholesterol among obese Asian women. Further research with higher caffeine dosage and larger and more heterogenous sample sizes is recommended to confirm the findings.

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Mark W. Orme, Phoebe H.I. Lloyd-Evans, Akila R. Jayamaha, Winceslaus Katagira, Bruce Kirenga, Ilaria Pina, Andrew P. Kingsnorth, Ben Maylor, Sally J. Singh, and Alex V. Rowlands

Albert Einstein taught us that “everything is relative.” People’s experience of physical activity (PA) is no different, with “relativism” particularly pertinent to the perception of intensity. Markers of absolute and relative intensities of PA have different but complimentary utilities, with absolute intensity considered best for PA guideline adherence and relative intensity for personalized exercise prescription. Under the paradigm of exercise and PA as medicine, our Technical Note proposes a method of synchronizing accelerometry with the incremental shuttle walking test to facilitate description of the intensity of the free-living PA profile in absolute and relative terms. Our approach is able to generate and distinguish “can do” or “cannot do” (based on exercise capacity) and “does do” or “does not do” (based on relative intensity PA) classifications in a chronic respiratory disease population, facilitating the selection of potential appropriate individually tailored interventions. By synchronizing direct assessments of exercise capacity and PA, clearer insights into the intensity of PA performed during everyday life can be gleaned. We believe the next steps are as follows: (1) to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of using relative and absolute intensities in combination to personalize the approach, (2) to determine its sensitivity to change following interventions (eg, exercise-based rehabilitation), and (3) to explore the use of this approach in healthier populations and in other long-term conditions.

Open access

Priya Patel, Xuedi Li, Charles D.G. Keown-Stoneman, Leigh M. Vanderloo, Laura M. Kinlin, Jonathon L. Maguire, and Catherine S. Birken

Background: Children’s movement behaviors have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic; however, little is known regarding movement behavior patterns over time by government-issued lockdowns. Our primary objective was to evaluate how children’s movement behaviors changed by stages of lockdown/reopening in Ontario, Canada, from 2020 to 2021. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study with repeated measures of exposure and outcomes was conducted. The exposure variables were dates from before and during COVID-19 when child movement behavior questionnaires were completed. Lockdown/reopening dates were included as knot locations in the spline model. The outcomes were daily screen, physical activity, outdoor, and sleep time. Results: A total of 589 children with 4805 observations were included (53.1% boys, 5.9 [2.6] y). On average, screen time increased during the first and second lockdowns and decreased during the second reopening. Physical activity and outdoor time increased during the first lockdown, decreased during the first reopening, and increased during the second reopening. Younger children (<5 y) had greater increases in screen time and lower increases in physical activity and outdoor time than older children (≥5 y). Conclusions: Policy makers should consider the impact of lockdowns on child movement behaviors, especially in younger children.