The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and acceptability of a seated pedaling device to reduce sedentary behavior (SB) in the homes of older adults. Methods: Each participant (N = 20) was outfitted with an activity monitor and seated pedaling device in the home for 7 days and randomly assigned to one of four light-intensity pedaling groups (15, 30, 45, and 60 min/day). Results: There was 100% adherence in all groups and significant group differences in the minutes pedaled per day (p < .001), with no significant difference in the total pedaling days completed (p = .241). The 15-, 30-, 45-, and 60-min groups experienced a 4.0%, 5.4%, 10.6%, and 11.3% reduction in SB on the days pedaled, respectively. Conclusion: Clinically relevant reductions in SB time were achievable in this 1-week trial. Long-term adherence and the impact of replacing SB with seated light activities on geriatric-relevant health outcomes should be investigated.
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Nicholas L. Lerma, Chi C. Cho, Ann M. Swartz, Hotaka Maeda, Young Cho and Scott J. Strath
Chonticha Kaewjoho, Thiwabhorn Thaweewannakij, Lugkana Mato, Saowanee Nakmaroeng, Supaporn Phadungkit and Sugalya Amatachaya
This single-blind, randomized controlled trial compared the effects of Thai dance exercise training on hard, soft, and sand surfaces on the functional outcomes of 120 community-dwelling older adults (40 subjects/group). The subjects were involved in a Thai dance exercise program on each surface, according to their groups, for 50 min/day, 3 days/week, for 6 weeks. The functional outcomes were assessed prior to training, at Week 3, and Week 6 after training. Subjects showed a significant improvement in all functional tests at 3 and 6 weeks after training, particularly in those who were trained on a sand surface and a soft surface (7–30% improvement, p < .05). The improvement was especially demonstrated in the complex and demanding motor activities after exercise on a soft and sand surface. Aside from attempting to modify training programs on a hard surface, the current findings suggest an alternative and cost-effective program to promote the levels of independence and safety that can be applied easily in clinical, home-based, and community settings.
Hsin-Yen Yen and Hsuan Hsu
Engaging in healthy eating and active living is an effective strategy for preventing noncommunicable diseases in older populations. The purposes were to compare the prevalence rates across countries and explore health factors associated with healthy eating and active living. The data were retrieved from a cross-sectional study conducted by the International Social Survey Program (2011 Health and Healthcare), with structured questionnaire surveys in 32 countries. The results showed that 38.42% reported active living and 39.11% reported healthy eating among 11,250 total respondents. Older adults with a long-standing illness or obesity who felt that they were not overcoming problems and had lost confidence were less likely to engage in healthy behavior. Perceived general health had a positive association with the odds of engaging in healthy eating and active living. The international comparisons provide a reference for local governments to decrease health disparities. Inspiring self-awareness about health might encourage older adults to pursue healthy lifestyles.
Carla Luguetti, Kimberly L. Oliver and Melissa Parker
Purpose: This study aims to understand how a facilitator’s pedagogy changed over time in the process of supporting a community of learners to teach using an activist sport approach. Methods: Self-study framed this four-semester research project. Participants included the lead author, two critical friends, 10 preservice teachers, and 110 youth. Data collected included lead researcher’s field notes and debriefing meetings between the lead author and the two critical friends. Results: Findings identified the facilitator’s: (a) struggles to create a democratic learning space in a university context, (b) discomfort with giving up control and allowing for various degrees of preservice teachers’ engagement, and (c) negotiation of feeling of saudade (the love that remains after someone is gone) while creating a group identity. Discussion/Conclusion: A pedagogy of facilitation as an act of love offers genuine possibilities for decolonizing and reinventing reality by naming, critiquing, and challenging/negotiating forms of oppression.
Dean Dudley, Nathan Weaver and John Cairney
Although high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is perceived to be an efficient way to meet health outcomes in physical education (PE), the effect of HIIT on the learning environment of students is unknown. Purpose: This study compared two PE interventions lasting 8 weeks and assessed the potential efficacy of embedding HIIT into a PE program to meet concurrent health and educative outcomes. Methods: Participants (N = 166; mean age = 12.91 years) were assigned to one of two study conditions according to intact groupings: HIIT program (n = 84) and dynamic PE (DPE) program (n = 82). Assessments occurred at baseline and postintervention. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test the intervention effects in each group. Results: Postintervention analysis demonstrated increases in health indices of both groups and comparing the effect size of each intervention revealed no difference. Systematic direct observation revealed effects for the provision of terminal feedback within the HIIT intervention (g = 1.03) when compared with the DPE intervention. A self-report questionnaire revealed changes in motivation toward PE among students allocated to the HIIT group were trivial, whereas students exposed to the DPE program displayed increased levels of motivation toward their PE experience. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that HIIT may elicit positive changes in PE settings by creating a “time potential” leading to an increased opportunity to learn without negating health gains. The DPE program proved to be move favorable in terms of student motivations to learn during PE.
Risto Marttinen, Mara Simon, Sharon Phillips and Ray N. Fredrick III
Purpose: To understand where and how Latina girls are physically active outside of the Reflective Educational Approach to Character and Health program and the impact of female role models on participation in the program. Methods: The authors implemented a yearlong after-school physical activity and literacy program for fifth and sixth grade girls (N = 22 girls) in a low-income, urban community. Four university students/coaches delivered all sessions. Data were triangulated through 10 Latina girls’ interviews, student journals, coaches’ journals, researcher journals, and field notes, and analyzed using constant comparison. Results: Girls participated in leisure-time physical activities with family in community spaces, in spite of social and cultural barriers. Female coaches facilitated girls’ increased engagement by acting as strong role models and fostering caring relationships. Conclusion: After-school programs, community spaces, and strong connections with coaches play a critical role in students’ engagement in physical activity.
Ermis Kyriakides, Niki Tsangaridou, Charalambos Y. Charalambous and Leonidas Kyriakides
Purpose: This study explores physical education teaching quality and its effects on student psychomotor learning by bringing together generic and content-specific practices. Method: A sample of 51 elementary classroom teachers who taught physical education to third-, fourth-, or fifth-grade students (N = 944) was recruited. Student psychomotor development was measured through a pre- and postperformance test. Teaching quality was captured through classroom observations and a student survey. Results: Findings showed that more teacher-level variance was explained when combining generic and content-specific practices, as compared with that explained when considering either type of practices in isolation. Teaching aspects from both types of practices were found to be important predictors that could discriminate among teachers based on their level of effectiveness. Conclusion: A comprehensive framework of physical education teaching effectiveness could be developed involving both types of practices. This framework could be used for both summative and formative purposes in preservice or in-service teacher education programs.
Susan G. Zieff and Claudia M. Guedes
Physical activity (PA) is a proven strategy for reducing risk of chronic disease. Many older adults do not reach recommended levels of activity to achieve health benefits. There is growing interest among scholars and practitioners about the potential of technology to increase PA and improve health. This study investigated knowledge of, attitudes toward, and experiences with PA technology among a sample of older adults to determine potential for use in interventions. Overall, participants indicated that they learned about their levels of PA, held positive attitudes toward, and reported good experiences with PA technology, including desired behavior change. Negative outcomes included concerns about risk from using PA technology. Outcomes from this study suggest the need for updated views of older adults and technology and potential health benefits from using PA technology.
Minjung Kim, Brent D. Oja, Han Soo Kim and Ji-Hyoung Chin
The quality of a student-athlete’s experience can be a product of the services provided by their sponsoring sport organization. In an attempt to improve the student-athlete experience, this study was positioned to examine how collegiate sport services could use academic psychological capital (PsyCap) and student-athlete engagement to promote school satisfaction and psychological well-being. A total of 248 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I student-athletes participated in this study. Results indicated that academic classification moderated academic PsyCap’s influence on engagement. In addition, the academic PsyCap of the student-athletes positively influenced school satisfaction and psychological well-being, but student-athlete engagement fully mediated the relationship between academic PsyCap and psychological well-being. This empirical evidence provides new knowledge on the relationships among student-athletes’ motivational cognitive constructs, educational engagement, school satisfaction, and psychological well-being in the context of highly competitive collegiate sports. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed, including incorporating the results with services provided to student-athletes.
Alvaro Sicilia, Manuel Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Delia C. Dumitru, Adrian Paterna and Mark D. Griffiths
Fitness-related self-conscious emotions (SCEs) have been proposed as antecedents of exercise addiction (EA). However, the potential mechanisms underlying such a relationship remain unexplored. The present study examined the relationship between fitness-related SCEs and risk of EA, as well as the mediating role of passion for exercise. A total of 296 male runners (M = 40.35 years, SD = 10.69) completed a survey assessing weekly exercise frequency/hours, fitness-related SCEs, passion for exercise, and the risk of EA. The relationships between the study variables were examined using structural equation modeling. After controlling for age and weekly exercise frequency/hours, fitness-related SCEs of shame, guilt, and hubristic pride were positively associated with risk of EA. However, while guilt had direct effects on risk of EA, shame and hubristic pride showed indirect effects via obsessive passion. The results of the study are discussed, and some practical implications and future research directions are presented.