Kevin Andrew Richards, Scott McNamara, Alyssa M. Trad, Lauren Hill, and Sarena Abdallah
School administrators represent key agents of socialization for teachers within their schools, including adapted physical educators who design and implement instruction for youth with disabilities, often across multiple school sites. The purpose of this study was to understand how adapted physical educators navigate and build relationships with administrators in the schools where they teach. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 24 adapted physical educators from the U.S. state of California and analyzed using a multiphase approach. Analysis suggested both the importance of and challenges with building effective relationships with administrators. Themes included the following: (a) Administrators do not understand adapted physical education, which impacts programs and students; (b) the importance of relationship building in cultivating principal support; and (c) relationship development requires intentionality, but results in trust and motivation. Results are discussed using role socialization theory, and recommendations for the preparation of both adapted physical educators and school principals are discussed.
Solange Parra-Soto, Craig Tumblety, Carolina Araya, Leandro F.M. Rezende, Frederick K. Ho, Jill P. Pell, and Carlos Celis-Morales
Purpose: Although physical activity (PA) has been consistently associated with breast cancer, existing evidence is limited to self-reported physical activity, which is prone to dilution bias. Therefore, this aims to examine the associations of device-measured PA domains with breast cancer risk and whether it differs by menopausal status. Methods: Prospective cohort study. Data from 48,286 women from the UK Biobank cohort were analyzed. A wrist triaxial accelerometer was used to collect physical activity data for light, moderate, vigorous, moderate to vigorous, and total PA. Cox proportional models were performed to examine the association between PA domains, menopausal status, and breast cancer risk. Results: Eight hundred thirty-six breast cancer cases were diagnosed during a median of 5.4 years (interquartile range: 4.7–5.9). For total PA, those in the most active quartile had a 26% lower risk of breast cancer (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61–0.91) compared with those least active. Similar results were observed for light PA (HR: 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64–0.96), and moderate to vigorous PA (HR: 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64–0.96). However, moderate PA (HR: 0.73; 95% CI, 0.44–1.19) and vigorous PA (HR: 0.77; 95% CI, 0.56–1.05) was nonsignificant. No evidence of interaction between PA domains and menopause status was found (P > .10). Conclusion: High levels of PA are associated with a lower risk of breast cancer with similar magnitude of associations observed across different intensity domains.
Mark W. Orme, Phoebe H.I. Lloyd-Evans, Akila R. Jayamaha, Winceslaus Katagira, Bruce Kirenga, Ilaria Pina, Andrew P. Kingsnorth, Ben Maylor, Sally J. Singh, and Alex V. Rowlands
Albert Einstein taught us that “everything is relative.” People’s experience of physical activity (PA) is no different, with “relativism” particularly pertinent to the perception of intensity. Markers of absolute and relative intensities of PA have different but complimentary utilities, with absolute intensity considered best for PA guideline adherence and relative intensity for personalized exercise prescription. Under the paradigm of exercise and PA as medicine, our Technical Note proposes a method of synchronizing accelerometry with the incremental shuttle walking test to facilitate description of the intensity of the free-living PA profile in absolute and relative terms. Our approach is able to generate and distinguish “can do” or “cannot do” (based on exercise capacity) and “does do” or “does not do” (based on relative intensity PA) classifications in a chronic respiratory disease population, facilitating the selection of potential appropriate individually tailored interventions. By synchronizing direct assessments of exercise capacity and PA, clearer insights into the intensity of PA performed during everyday life can be gleaned. We believe the next steps are as follows: (1) to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of using relative and absolute intensities in combination to personalize the approach, (2) to determine its sensitivity to change following interventions (eg, exercise-based rehabilitation), and (3) to explore the use of this approach in healthier populations and in other long-term conditions.
Priya Patel, Xuedi Li, Charles D.G. Keown-Stoneman, Leigh M. Vanderloo, Laura M. Kinlin, Jonathon L. Maguire, and Catherine S. Birken
Background: Children’s movement behaviors have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic; however, little is known regarding movement behavior patterns over time by government-issued lockdowns. Our primary objective was to evaluate how children’s movement behaviors changed by stages of lockdown/reopening in Ontario, Canada, from 2020 to 2021. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study with repeated measures of exposure and outcomes was conducted. The exposure variables were dates from before and during COVID-19 when child movement behavior questionnaires were completed. Lockdown/reopening dates were included as knot locations in the spline model. The outcomes were daily screen, physical activity, outdoor, and sleep time. Results: A total of 589 children with 4805 observations were included (53.1% boys, 5.9 [2.6] y). On average, screen time increased during the first and second lockdowns and decreased during the second reopening. Physical activity and outdoor time increased during the first lockdown, decreased during the first reopening, and increased during the second reopening. Younger children (<5 y) had greater increases in screen time and lower increases in physical activity and outdoor time than older children (≥5 y). Conclusions: Policy makers should consider the impact of lockdowns on child movement behaviors, especially in younger children.
Nima Dehghansai, Alia Mazhar, and Joseph Baker
Research pertaining to the experiences and motives of Paralympic athletes who transfer between sports is scant. This study aimed to address this gap through semistructured interviews with Canadian Paralympic coaches (n = 35) and athletes (n = 12). Three higher-order themes of “alternative to retirement,” “career extension,” and “compatibility” were identified. The subthemes of “psychobehavioral” and “physical and physiological” (from the higher-order theme of alternative to retirement) captured reasons leading to transfer, which are similar to reasons athletes may consider retirement. The subthemes of career extension—“better opportunities” and “beneficial outcomes”—shed light on factors that contributed to the withdrawal of negative experiences and reinforcement of positive outcomes associated with transferring sports. Last, compatibility had three subthemes of “resources,” “sport-specific,” and “communication,” which encapsulated factors athletes should consider prior to their transfer. In conclusion, the participants highlighted the importance of transparent and effective communication between athletes and sports to align and establish realistic expectations for everyone involved.
Brynn Adamson, Mina Woo, Toni Liechty, Chung-Yi Chiu, Nic Wyatt, Cailey Cranny, and Laura Rice
Lack of disability awareness of fitness professionals is a well-established barrier to exercise participation among people with disabilities that is likely related to the lack of disability awareness training for group fitness instructors. The purposes of this study were to develop, implement, and evaluate a disability awareness training for group fitness instructors. A 90-min video training and resource manual were developed. We recruited 10 group fitness instructors from one recreation center to participate. Participants completed baseline, posttraining, and 2-month follow-up testing on survey-based outcomes including disability attitudes, confidence in exercise adaptations, and training satisfaction. Participants’ confidence to adapt fitness classes was significantly improved; however, disability attitudes were high in the pretest and not significantly different posttraining. Semistructured interviews were conducted posttraining and revealed three themes: Formal disability training is needed, Managing inclusive class dynamics, and Training suggestions and satisfaction. This training demonstrated a feasible intervention for increasing disability awareness among community-based group fitness instructors.
Kim Gammage, Jeff Caron, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Matt Hoffman, Christopher Hill, Sascha Leisterer, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, and Matthew Stork
The present article aimed to systematically summarize primary school-based intervention programs and their effects evaluated through randomized-controlled trial design. A systematic review of relevant articles was carried out using 4 electronic databases. From a total of 193 studies initially found, 30 were included in the qualitative synthesis. Main results: (1) Intensive interval training or jump/strength exercises may positively influence physical fitness, promoting challenging task, psychological needs, and guided styles to a greater extent; (2) Games that demand more cognitive function seem more beneficial than those based on repetitive aerobic exertion to improve fundamental motor skills; (3) The jumping/strength exercises may cause benefits in bone area and bone mineral density, while flexibility and balance may reduce the risk of muscle injury; and (4) Programming a greater dose of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity seems to be related to positive effects in core executive function and academic performance. Additionally, providing information and involving the social environment may enhance the positive effects.
Nima Dehghansai, Alia Mazhar, Ross Pinder, Joseph Baker, and Ian Renshaw
The current study explored coach and athlete reactions and challenges leading up to the Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games, with a specific focus on the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Games’ postponement. Nine Australian Paralympic coaches (n = 3) and athletes (n = 6) shared their experiences in semistructured interviews. The thematic analysis highlighted how participants experienced the emergence of the pandemic in different ways, but all were relieved when the late but eventual decision to postpone the Games was made. Regarding lockdown periods (i.e., social-distancing restrictions), some coaches and athletes thrived under the new reality (i.e., training from home, online coaching) while others had more difficulty adjusting. Furthermore, results highlight the many uncertainties still remaining, which continue to influence participants’ sport and personal lives. The experiences of coaches and athletes during the COVID-19 pandemic sheds light on strategies and resources that could support Paralympic coaches and athletes during current and future crises.