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Ellen J. Staurowsky

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Pete Van Mullem and Chris Croft

Coaching at the collegiate level requires a varied skill set in a competitive environment, where coaching positions have a high turnover rate. Preparing to work as a coach at the collegiate level is often self-driven and aligns with how coaches learn in other contexts. Research on the career progression of collegiate coaches is scant and tends to focus on gender differences or one’s desire to become a head coach. Recently, research has expanded to examine the preparation of coach developers and their role in guiding coach development activities in a variety of contexts. Therefore, guided by the literature on coach development, the role of the coach developer in collegiate sport, and insight gleaned from a descriptive study on the career path of collegiate head coaches, this best practices article offers practical recommendations for coach developers to best serve collegiate coaches along their coaching journey.

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Blake Bennett and Glenn Fyall

Having investigated the history of rugby over the last century in Japan, a study reported that, historically, rugby participation has been underpinned by the quest to develop young males’ character. The traditional Japanese view of rugby as a medium for education and dominant cultural values has also been considered to be a contrasting view to the Westernised professional perspectives of rugby as a form of entertainment. With a focus on the role of rugby in the school-based club experience, this article presents hermeneutic interpretations of conversations held with four Japanese secondary school rugby coaches and four players, and it explores the socioculturally relevant notion of kimochi (気持ち; feeling/attitude/vitality) in players’ corporeal experiences. Furthermore, the ways in which kimochi is described by the coaches as a means to cultivate kokoro (mind/heart/spirit) and prepare players for adult life are investigated. The extent to which this idea emerged from the participants’ comments is offered as an important consideration for the International Coach Development Framework and the International Sport Coaching Framework, and we posit that the exploration of inherent sociocultural discourses must be carefully contemplated if the future conceptualisation, interpretation and utility of such frameworks is to be enduring.

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Fabian Kautz, Michael Schaffrath and Alex C. Gang

The sport industry has long used social media as an effective instrument of communication. In the framework of the current study, a content analysis investigated how professional sport clubs in Germany use Facebook and Twitter. The study covers the entire 2015–16 season, which was illustrated via selectively choosing 2 weeks for data analysis; four clubs each from basketball, ice hockey, football, and handball were collected as a sample. All Facebook posts and Twitter tweets published by the 16 clubs during the 2 weeks, a total of 3,412 contributions (Facebook 717, Twitter 2,695), were included in the analysis. The codebook contained 57 variables, and this article presents the results on the identified topics of the published contents on the two social media platforms. On both platforms, the clubs under examination primarily issued statements regarding themselves and their sport-related activities. Twitter is predominantly used as a live medium during games, whereas Facebook allows for significantly greater reach. However, no sport-related differences were found between the two social media platforms.

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Vera Camões-Costa, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe, David Dixon, Isabella Russo and Zoya Huschtscha

The study aimed to determine the impact of a dairy milk recovery beverage immediately after endurance exercise on leukocyte trafficking, neutrophil function, and gastrointestinal tolerance markers during recovery. Male runners (N = 11) completed two feeding trials in randomized order, after 2 hr of running at 70% V˙O2max, fluid restricted, in temperate conditions (25 °C, 43% relative humidity). Immediately postexercise, the participants received a chocolate-flavored dairy milk beverage equating to 1.2 g/kg body mass carbohydrate and 0.4 g/kg body mass protein in one trial, and water volume equivalent in another trial. Venous blood and breath samples were collected preexercise, postexercise, and during recovery to determine the leukocyte counts, plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein, and cortisol concentrations, as well as breath H2. In addition, 1,000 µl of whole blood was incubated with 1 μg/ml Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide for 1 hr at 37 °C to determine the stimulated plasma elastase concentration. Gastrointestinal symptoms and feeding tolerance markers were measured preexercise, every 15 min during exercise, and hourly postexercise for 3 hr. The postexercise leukocyte (mean [95% confidence interval]: 12.7 [11.6, 14.0] × 109/L [main effect of time, MEOT]; p < .001) and neutrophil (10.2 [9.1, 11.5] × 109/L; p < .001) counts, as well as the plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (470 pg/ml; +120%; p = .012) and cortisol (236 nMol/L; +71%; p = .006) concentrations, were similar throughout recovery for both trials. No significant difference in breath H2 and gastrointestinal symptoms was observed between trials. The total (Trial × Time, p = .025) and per cell (Trial × Time, p = .001) bacterially stimulated neutrophil elastase release was greater for the chocolate-flavored dairy milk recovery beverage (+360% and +28%, respectively) in recovery, compared with the water trial (+85% and −38%, respectively). Chocolate-flavored dairy milk recovery beverage consumption immediately after exercise prevents the decrease in neutrophil function during the recovery period, and it does not account for substantial malabsorption or gastrointestinal symptoms over a water volume equivalent.

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Reid J. Reale, Timothy J. Roberts, Khalil A. Lee, Justina L. Bonsignore and Melissa L. Anderson

We sought to assess the accuracy of current or developing new prediction equations for resting metabolic rate (RMR) in adolescent athletes. RMR was assessed via indirect calorimetry, alongside known predictors (body composition via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, height, age, and sex) and hypothesized predictors (race and maturation status assessed via years to peak height velocity), in a diverse cohort of adolescent athletes (n = 126, 77% male, body mass = 72.8 ± 16.6 kg, height = 176.2 ± 10.5 cm, age = 16.5 ± 1.4 years). Predictive equations were produced and cross-validated using repeated k-fold cross-validation by stepwise multiple linear regression (10 folds, 100 repeats). Performance of the developed equations was compared with several published equations. Seven of the eight published equations examined performed poorly, underestimating RMR in >75% to >90% of cases. Root mean square error of the six equations ranged from 176 to 373, mean absolute error ranged from 115 to 373 kcal, and mean absolute error SD ranged from 103 to 185 kcal. Only the Schofield equation performed reasonably well, underestimating RMR in 51% of cases. A one- and two-compartment model were developed, both r 2 of .83, root mean square error of 147, and mean absolute error of 114 ± 26 and 117 ± 25 kcal for the one- and two-compartment model, respectively. Based on the models’ performance, as well as visual inspection of residual plots, the following model predicts RMR in adolescent athletes with better precision than previous models; RMR = 11.1 × body mass (kg) + 8.4 × height (cm) − (340 male or 537 female).

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Sara M. Campbell, Ashley Fallaize and Paul Schempp

Coach developers provide education and support to coaches. Therefore, these individuals play an important role in coaching systems. However, the formal training of coach developers is a relatively new concept. Both practitioners and academics seem eager to understand how to effectively train these individuals. We had the opportunity to collect feedback from participants of an international coach developer training programme (CDTP). The primary purpose of this insights paper is to share this feedback and make recommendations for future CDTPs based on connections between participant feedback and relevant literature. A secondary purpose of this paper is to stimulate dialogue from programme participants and coordinators, who can offer additional insight regarding their experiences in CDTPs.

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Simon Fryer, Craig Paterson, Ian C. Perkins, Chris Gloster, Mark E.T. Willems and Julia A. Potter

The delivery to and utilization of oxygenated hemoglobin to the forearm muscles are key determinants of rock-climbing performance. Anthocyanin-rich New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) has been suggested to improve blood flow and may enhance forearm endurance performance. As such, a double-blind, randomized crossover design study with 12 participants performed submaximal intermittent contractions (at 40% maximal voluntary contraction) to failure after a 7-day intake of 600 mg/day NZBC extract or placebo. Minimum tissue saturation index (TSI%) was assessed during the contractions. During recovery, time to half recovery of TSI% and brachial artery blood flow were assessed. There was no difference in time to exhaustion between NZBC and placebo. Minimum TSI% was lower with NZBC extract (43 ± 8 vs. 50 ± 11 TSI%; p = .007; Cohen’s d = 1.01). During recovery, there was no effect on brachial artery blood flow. However, time to half recovery was faster with NZBC (26 ± 17 vs. 42 ± 26 s; p = .001; Cohen’s d = 1.3) following exhaustive contractions. Seven days of NZBC extract appears to improve muscle oxygenation during and following contractions with no change in either arterial blood flow or forearm endurance performance.

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Lauren Downham and Christopher Cushion

Reflection is a contested but taken for granted concept, whose meaning shifts to accommodate the interpretation and interests of those using the term. Subsequently, there is limited understanding of the concept. The purpose of this article was to consider critically the discursive complexities of reflection and their articulation through coach developers’ practice. Data were collected from a National High-Performance coach education program. Coach developers responsible for one-to-one support (n = 8) and on-program support (n = 3) participated in the research. Semistructured interviews were conducted with coach developers, and participant observations were undertaken of a coach developer forum and program workshops (n = 9). Foucault’s concepts: power, discourse, and discipline were used to examine data with critical depth. Analysis explored “Discourse of Reflection,” “Discipline, Power, and Reflection,” and “Coach Developers: Confession, ‘Empowerment,’ and Reflection.” Humanistic ideas constructed a discourse of reflection that was mobilized through coach confession. Coach developer efforts to be “critical” and “learner centered” were embroiled with intrinsic and subtle relations of power as “empowering” intent exacerbated rather than ameliorated its exercise. This article makes visible a different destabilized and problematized version of reflection, thus introducing an awkwardness into the fabric of our experiences of reflection.