Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 24,978 items

Restricted access

Karen McCormack

Women’s experiences in largely male sporting worlds often include marginalization and patronizing attitudes that can make participants unwelcome. Yet some women describe positive, liberating experiences in these sports. How do these women negotiate a largely male sport? What strategies do they employ to craft supportive communities? Based on interviews with 60 mountain bikers and email correspondence with an additional 98 bikers, along with results from a global survey of over 2,300 bikers, this paper examines women’s strategies for creating communities in which they can fully participate. The research uncovers the important role of communication technologies. While media practices can promote the celebration of risk-taking and aggression, they also provide a platform for talking back and building an alternative, supportive community.

Restricted access

Brian W. Wiese, Kevin Miller and Eduardo Godoy

A 19-year-old African-American male Division I collegiate American football player with no prior history of shoulder injury presented with right shoulder pain after making a tackle during a game. He was initially diagnosed with a rotator cuff strain with potential underlying labral pathology. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging arthrogram showed no labral tearing, though a Buford complex was identified. A Buford complex is a normal anatomical labral variant where the anterior labrum is absent and the middle glenohumeral ligament is “cord-like” in structure. This case was managed conservatively since surgical intervention is only recommended if there is a secondary pathology to the shoulder (e.g., type II superior labrum anterior to posterior [SLAP] lesions). Clinicians should be aware of Buford complexes because they can predispose athletes to secondary injuries and can be managed successfully with a conservative rehabilitation approach in the absence of secondary pathology.

Restricted access

Devajyoti Deka

This research examined the effect of pre–post differences in walking duration, health, and weight on retirees’ long-term quality of life (QoL). It used data from a 2018 randomized mail survey of 483 suburban New Jersey retirees. Ordinary least squares and three-stage least squares models were used. The analysis showed that changes in walking duration during the first 2 years of retirement are directly associated with health change, health change has an effect on long-term QoL, and weight variation of 10 lb or more has an effect on health change and long-term QoL. Although QoL peaks for the sample of retirees at around age 75, people whose average walking duration increased, health improved, and weight did not increase substantially after retirement continued to experience high QoL for a longer time. The results show that people can achieve high long-term QoL by choosing an active lifestyle when transitioning to retirement.

Restricted access

Timothy A. Kulpa, Jamie Mansell, Anne Russ and Ryan Tierney

Context: Patients who do not fully recover from a concussion in 7–14 days may require an impairment-based rehabilitation program. Recent evidence indicates improved outcomes with active rehabilitation compared to passive physical and cognitive rest. Clinical Question: In patients with persistent symptoms (greater than 4 weeks) following concussion, how does aerobic exercise affect postconcussion symptoms? Clinical Bottom Line: There is moderate and sufficient SORT Level B evidence to support the inclusion of subsymptom threshold (SST) exercise in the multimodal treatment plan for patients suffering from persistent symptoms after concussion. All five included studies reported moderate to very large effects ranging from d = 0.72 to d = 10.64 in reducing symptoms after the implementation of SST aerobic exercise. Additionally, two studies also identified moderate and very large effects (d = 0.77, d = 2.56) favoring aerobic exercise over stretching interventions. These results indicate that this treatment has potential clinical utility and is a viable option to reduce symptoms in patients with postconcussion syndrome and persistent symptoms following concussion.

Restricted access

Erik A. Wikstrom, Kyeongtak Song, Kimmery Migel and Chris J. Hass

Aberrant loading is a mechanism by which individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) may negatively impact cartilage health and therefore long-term health outcomes. We aimed to quantify walking vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) component differences between those with and without CAI. Participants (n = 36) walked barefoot overground at a self-selected comfortable pace. Normalized peak vGRF, time to peak vGRF, and normalized loading rate were calculated. Higher normalized loading rates (CAI: 5.69 ± 0.62 N/BW/s; controls: 5.30 ± 0.44 N/BW/s, p = .034) and less time to peak vGRF (CAI: 1.48 ± 0.18 s; controls: 1.62 ± 0.16 s, p = .018) were observed in those with CAI. In conclusion, those with CAI demonstrate a higher normalized loading rate and less time to peak vGRF compared to controls.

Restricted access

Chi-Whan Choi, Jung-Wan Koo and Yeon-Gyu Jeong

Context: The modified side-bridge exercise is designed for some special situations in which it is impossible to tolerate the compressive load on the side supported during the side bridge, such as in the older people with a hip or knee replacement and even in athletes with shoulder pain. Objectives: To examine the effects of 3 modified side-bridge exercises on the spinal stability muscles compared with traditional side-bridge (TSB) exercises for healthy men. Design: The effects of different exercises on the muscle activities of the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and quadratus lumborum (QL) during TSB exercise, both legs lift on side lying (BLLS), torso lift on a 45° bench while side lying (TLBS), and wall side bridge (WSB) were analyzed with the 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. Setting: This study was conducted in a university hospital laboratory. Participants: A total of 20 healthy men were recruited for this study. Interventions: The participants performed TSB, BLLS, TLBS, and WSB in a random order. Main Outcome Measures: Surface electromyography measured the muscle activity of the EO, IO, and QL. A 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance assessed the statistical significance of the EO, IO, and QL muscle activity. When there was a significant difference, a Bonferroni adjustment was performed. Results: BLLS and TLBS showed similar effects to TSB in the EO, IO, and QL muscle activity, whereas WSB showed significantly less QL muscle activity than TSB (P < .05). Moreover, TLBS was significantly greater in the muscle activity of QL and EO than WSB (P < .05). Conclusion: BLLS and TLBS may be effective rehabilitation techniques to activate EO, IO, and QL in patients who are unable to perform TSB as spine stability exercises.

Restricted access

Ryan Thomson, Danielle Carabello, Jamie Mansell and Anne Russ

Clinical Question: In retired National Football League (NFL) players, what is the prevalence of depression after sustaining concussions? Clinical Bottom Line: There is emerging evidence to support the clinical question that retired NFL players with a history of concussion may be diagnosed with depression.

Restricted access

Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

Restricted access

Muammer Altun

Context: Joint position sense (JPS) tests of proprioception lack ecological validity because the testing conditions are so different from the normal function that they can contribute little to understanding the role proprioception plays in daily and sporting activities. Objective: To evaluate the effect of low and high external load on the knee JPS and to investigate the relationship between maximum voluntary isometric contraction and force sense (FS). Design: Experimental study. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: A total of 47 volunteers with no history of knee pathology. Interventions: Three active JPS tests performed with no load, low load, and high load were compared at the 45° target angle. For isometric FS test, 50% load was used. For isotonic low load and high load JPS tests, 30% and 70% loads were applied, respectively. Main Outcome Measures: To analyze obtained data set 2-way multiple analysis of variance, repeated measures of analysis of variance, paired sample t test, and the Pearson correlation coefficient were used. Results: JPS was not affected by gender (male and female) and activity levels (sedentary, recreational, and trained). Results of the repeated measure of analysis of variance demonstrated the significant main effect of loads (P = .001). Significant differences were found between no load, low load, and high load JPS (P = .001). A positive and significant correlation was found between maximum voluntary isometric contraction and FS error values (r = .41, P = .001). Conclusions: The results suggest that as the load level increases, the knee JPS improves. Knee JPS assessed under external load may be a more appropriate alternative to the nature of the sport. Those with higher muscle strength have a worse FS.

Restricted access

Emma L. Sweeney, Daniel J. Peart, Irene Kyza, Thomas Harkes, Jason G. Ellis and Ian H. Walshe

Experimental sleep restriction (SR) has demonstrated reduced insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals. Exercise is well-known to be beneficial for metabolic health. A single bout of exercise has the capacity to increase insulin sensitivity for up to 2 days. Therefore, the current study aimed to determine if sprint interval exercise could attenuate the impairment in insulin sensitivity after one night of SR in healthy males. Nineteen males were recruited for this randomized crossover study which consisted of four conditions—control, SR, control plus exercise, and sleep restriction plus exercise. Time in bed was 8 hr (2300–0700) in the control conditions and 4 hr (0300–0700) in the SR conditions. Conditions were separated by a 1-week entraining period. Participants slept at home, and compliance was assessed using wrist actigraphy. Following the night of experimental sleep, participants either conducted sprint interval exercise or rested for the equivalent duration. An oral glucose tolerance test was then conducted. Blood samples were obtained at regular intervals for measurement of glucose and insulin. Insulin concentrations were higher in SR than control (p = .022). Late-phase insulin area under the curve was significantly lower in sleep restriction plus exercise than SR (862 ± 589 and 1,267 ± 558; p = .004). Glucose area under the curve was not different between conditions (p = .207). These findings suggest that exercise improves the late postprandial response following a single night of SR.