Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 34,912 items for

  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Volume 34 (2024): Issue 4 (Jul 2024)

Restricted access

Volume 38 (2024): Issue 4 (Jul 2024)

Restricted access

A 20-Year Systematic Review of Before- and After-School Physical Activity Research (2000–2020)

Risto Marttinen, Alba Rodrigues, Oscar Nuñez-Enriquez, Erin Centeio, and Dominique Banville

Purpose: This systematic review aimed at identifying, categorizing, and analyzing peer-reviewed literature on organized before- and after-school (B&ASP) physical activity programs from 2000 to 2020. Methods: We analyzed 291 articles that fit the inclusion criteria from five databases. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Guidelines were followed. Results: Research on B&ASPs has increased and been published in 157 journals across 26 countries. Most studies were quantitative. Most studies used a theoretical or conceptual framework and reported reliability, validity, and trustworthiness. Varied additional foci of impact were reported through different physical activities. However, physical activity was usually not measured. Interventions were 1–520 weeks long and conducted in different study contexts. Many studies targeted marginalized groups but did not utilize critical theory. Conclusion: Further studies should aim to better understand the nuances of B&ASPs, and critical theories could be useful. The lack of journals for B&ASP research limits scholars’ ability to move the field forward.

Restricted access

Acute and Chronic Weight-Making Practice in Professional Mixed Martial Arts Athletes: An Analysis of 33 Athletes Across 80 Fights

Reid Reale, Junzhu Wang, Charles Hu Stull, Duncan French, Dean Amasinger, and Ran Wang

Mixed martial arts’ popularity has increased in recent years, alongside descriptive research and evidence-based performance recommendations. Guidelines for (both chronic and acute) weight making exist; however, how these translate in real-life scenarios and detailed investigations on practices in larger groups deserve attention. The present study examined the body mass (BM) and composition of 33 professional mixed martial arts athletes preparing for 80 fights. Athletes were supported by on-site dietitians, who encouraged evidence-based practices. Fasted BM was measured throughout the last ∼10 days before all bouts (acute weight management phase). A subset of athletes had body composition assessed before and after the chronic weight loss phase for 40 fights. Most athletes engaged in chronic BM loss, and all engaged in acute weight loss. Many lost fat-free mass (FFM) during the chronic phase, with rates of BM loss <0.5% best preserving FFM. Regardless of losses, the present athletes possessed greater FFM than other combat sport athletes and engaged in greater acute weight loss. Dehydration in the 24–48 hr before the weigh-in was not reflective of weight regain after the weigh-in, rather BM 7–10 days before the weigh-in was most reflective. These findings suggest that many mixed martial arts athletes could increase FFM at the time of competition by maintaining leaner physiques outside of competition and/or allowing increased time to reduce BM chronically. Acutely, athletes can utilize evidence-based protocols, eliminating carbohydrates, fiber, sodium, and finally fluid in a staged approach, before the weigh-in, reducing the amount of sweating required, thus theoretically better protecting health and preserving performance.

Restricted access

Durability and Underlying Physiological Factors: How Do They Change Throughout a Cycling Season in Semiprofessional Cyclists?

Jens G. Voet, Robert P. Lamberts, Aitor Viribay, Jos J. de Koning, and Teun van Erp

Purpose: To investigate how cycling time-trial (TT) performance changes over a cycling season, both in a “fresh” state and in a “fatigued” state (durability). Additionally, the aim was to explore whether these changes are related to changes in underlying physiological factors such as gross efficiency, energy expenditure (EE), and substrate oxidation (fat oxidation [FatOx] and carbohydrate oxidation [CarbOx]). Methods: Sixteen male semiprofessional cyclists visited the laboratory on 3 occasions during a cycling season (PRE, START, and IN) and underwent a performance test in both fresh and fatigued states (after 38.1 [4.9] kJ/kg), containing a submaximal warm-up for the measurement of gross efficiency, EE, FatOx, and CarbOx and a maximal TT of 1 (TT1min) and 10 minutes (TT10min). Results were compared across states (fresh vs fatigued) and periods (PRE, START, and IN). Results: The average power output (PO) in TT1min decreased (P < .05) from fresh to fatigued state across all observed periods, whereas there was no change in the PO in TT10min. Over the course of the season, the PO in TT1min in the fatigued state improved more compared with the PO in TT1min in the fresh state. Furthermore, while EE did not significantly change, there was an increase in FatOx and a decrease in CarbOx toward the fatigued state. These changes diminished during the cycling season (IN), indicating a greater contribution of CarbOx in the fatigued state. Conclusions: TT1min performance is more sensitive to fatigue compared with TT10min. Also, during a cycling season, durability improves more when compared with fresh maximal POs, which is also observed in the changes in substrate oxidation.

Free access

The Evolution of Physical Activity and Health Research in China: A Bibliometric Analysis of Study Areas and Sex Balance in Authorship

Kaiyue Zhang, Diana Morales, Junshi Chen, Wenhua Zhao, Anne Tang, Eduardo Kohn, Ding Ding, Andrea Ramirez Varela, Michael Pratt, and Pedro C. Hallal

Background: This article evaluates the evolution of physical activity and health research in China through a bibliometric analysis focused on number of publications, study areas, and sex balance in authorship. Methods: A systematic review was conducted by the Global Observatory for Physical Activity for “physical activity and health” publications between 1950 and 2019. Here, we focus on the 610 Chinese publications identified, defined as those in which data collection took place in China. We assessed the number of publications, classified them into 5 areas (1) surveillance, (2) correlates and determinants, (3) health consequences, (4) interventions, and (5) policy, and analyzed female participation in authorship. Results: The first Chinese publication identified in the review was in 1990. Since, the average number of physical activity and health publications increased from one per year in the 1990s to 7.6 per year in the 2000s, and to 47 per year in the 2010s. Most publications focused on the correlates and determinants (38.7%) and the health consequences of physical activity (35.9%). Physical activity policy accounted for 2.3% of the publications. In the 1990s, 64% of the publications included at least one female author; this proportion increased to 90% in the 2010s. Conclusion: Despite a slow start, China’s research on physical activity and health has grown rapidly since 2000. The distribution of publications by study areas and female participation in authorship is similar to that observed globally, with fewer publications focused on interventions and policy as compared with other topics.

Restricted access

Heartbreak City: Seattle Sports and the Unmet Promise of Urban Progress

Jules Boykoff

Restricted access

Nation Branding and Sports Diplomacy: Country Image Games in Times of Change

Simon M. Pack

Restricted access

The NCAA and the Exploitation of College Profit-Athletes: An Amateurism That Never Was

Jim Sarra

Restricted access

A Typology of Design Archetypes in Professional Football Leagues: Autonomy and Openness as Key Factors Explaining Design Variance

Grant Hughes, Jon Billsberry, Mathew Todres, and Steve Swanson

Previous approaches to design archetypes in sport management have taken a single-country, multisport approach with a focus on National Sporting Organizations. While this line of research has provided significant breakthroughs for understanding sport organizations, there is a need to extend the boundaries of these investigations to explore variations within professional leagues in one sport and across multiple countries. Accordingly, the current study takes a single-sport, multicountry approach to explore how design archetypes vary and the factors influencing the variation. We analyzed the design archetypes of 104 professional football leagues using 44 organizational variables and identified four different design archetypes that can be used to categorize professional football leagues globally. Autonomy and openness were identified as the key factors determining design archetype structure in this environment. Our analysis of professional football league archetypes provides a foundation for understanding design archetype variation, and the insights can be used for comparison and analysis of meaningful change.