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Susan Park, Lindsay P. Toth, Scott E. Crouter, Cary M. Springer, Robert T. Marcotte and David R. Bassett

Purpose: To examine the effect of activity monitor placement on daily step counts when monitors are worn at different positions on the wrist/forearm and the hip. Methods: Participants (N = 18) wore eight different models (four wrist and four hip models) across four days. Each day, one hip and one wrist model were selected, and four identical monitors of each model were worn on the right hip and the non-dominant wrist/forearm, respectively, during all waking hours. Step counts of each monitor were compared to the same model worn in the referent position (wrist: proximal to ulnar styloid process; hip: midline of thigh). Percent of referent steps and mean difference between observed and referent positions were computed. Significant differences in steps between positions for each method were determined using one-way repeated measures ANOVAs. For significant main effects, pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni corrections were used to determine which positions were significantly different. Results: All wrist methods showed a significant main effect for placement (p < .05) and alternate positions were 1–16% lower than the referent position. For hip methods, only the Omron HJ-325 differed across positions (p < .05), but differences were among non-referent positions and all were within ±2% of steps recorded by the referent position. Conclusions: Researchers should be aware that positions that deviate from the manufacturer’s recommended position at the wrist could influence step counts. Of all hip methods examined, the Omron had a significant placement effect which did not constitute a practical difference.

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Georgia Cervin

This paper examines the governing body of international gymnastics, the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique (FIG) and its relationship with the International Olympic Committee (IOC). It outlines the nature of the relationship between the two bodies and how that relationship has historically impacted the resulting policy of both organizations. In particular, this research focuses on three main areas of policy. The first is economics and the shift from amateur to professional and commercial gymnastics. When the IOC began to develop commercial interests, the FIG feared losing its purity if it was to follow suit. Second, it explores policy surrounding gender. This is particularly relevant in a sport where each discipline is not only categorized by gender, but also contested on the basis of performance-gendered ideals. And finally, this research examines athlete welfare. Gymnastics is known for its young, docile participant base and, more recently, cases of sexual abuse in the United States. While a range of protective policies have since been created, what existed at an international level before then? I argue that the FIG has had to work within the confines of its Olympic remit in order to retain its relevance to the Olympic behemoth and its inclusion in the Games as gymnastics’ pinnacle event. At the same time, the FIG has mediated Olympic policy and exerted the will of the IOC over stakeholders in gymnastics. Moreover, this relationship is symbiotic: gymnastics is one of the top three most popular Olympic sports, attracting viewership and its attendant commercial benefits to the Games. This research is based on FIG bulletins and IOC correspondence, and it builds on a range of secondary works about the role of International Federations, their policies, and their rules in shaping the sports they govern.

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Jemima C. John, Shreela V. Sharma, Deanna Hoelscher, Michael D. Swartz and Chuck Huber

Introduction: Associations across self-efficacy, social support, and multiple measures of physical activity (PA) have not been thoroughly explored in hospital employees. Methods: Validated surveys assessed psychosocial factors; the IPAQ-long assessed PA, and mixed-effects analyses examined relations between psychosocial variables and PA in 920 employees from 6 Texas hospitals. Results: At P <.05, self-efficacy was significantly associated with light (β = 1.67), moderate (β = 1.63), and vigorous (β = 2.78) leisure PA; with domestic PA (β = 1.64); and with moderate commute PA (β = 0.03). At P < .05, family social-support was significantly associated with light (β = 0.94), moderate (β = 0.63), and vigorous (β = .74) leisure PA; with moderate (β = 0.46) and vigorous (β = 1.24) occupation PA; with light (β = 0.58) and moderate (β = 0.20) commute PA; and with domestic PA (β = 1.18). At P < .05, social support from friends was significantly associated with light (β = 0.74), moderate (β = 0.58), and vigorous (β = .91) leisure PA; with moderate commute (β = 0.21); and with domestic PA (β = 0.82). Conclusion: Interventions must emphasize self-efficacy–building strategies and the role of family support to meaningfully impact PA behaviors in this unique population.

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Diego de Alcantara Borba, Eduardo da Silva Alves, João Paulo Pereira Rosa, Lucas Alves Facundo, Carlos Magno Amaral Costa, Aldo Coelho Silva, Fernanda Veruska Narciso, Andressa Silva and Marco Túlio de Mello

Background: Physical exercise plays an important role in metabolic health, especially in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) system. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of a single endurance and resistance exercise session on IGF-1 serum. Methods: The systematic review was performed in SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases. All analyses are based on random-effect models. The study identified 249 records of which 21 were included. Results: There was an effect of endurance exercise on total IGF-1 (P = .01), but not for free IGF-1 (P = .36). Resistance exercise similarly only affected total IGF-1 (P = .003) and not free IGF-1 (P = .37). The effect size indicated that total IGF-1 is more affected (ES = 0.81) by endurance than by resistance exercise (ES = 0.46). The present study showed that IGF-1 serum concentrations are altered by exercise type, but in conditions which are not well-defined. Conclusions: The systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that there is no determinant in serum IGF-1 changes for the exercise load characteristic. Therefore, physical exercise may be an alternative treatment to control changes in IGF-1 metabolism and blood concentration.

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Rebecca L. Krupenevich and Ross H. Miller

The causes of age-related differences in lower-extremity joint moments and powers are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of highly physically active older adults walking with (1) a step length similar to young adults and (2) an upright trunk posture, on hip and ankle joint kinetics. The authors hypothesized that, compared with their self-selected walking mechanics, older adults would exhibit decreased hip kinetics and increased ankle kinetics when prescribed a young adult step length, and would exhibit decreased hip extension moments when maintaining an upright trunk posture during walking. A total of 12 active older adults (67 [5] y) and 13 active young adults (21 [3] y) walked at 1.3 m/s. The older adults also walked at 1.3 m/s with step lengths prescribed from height-matched young adults and, in a separate condition, walked with an upright trunk. The older adults did not display larger ankle kinetics or smaller hip kinetics in either condition compared to walking with a self-selected step length. These findings indicate that step length and trunk position do not primarily contribute to age-related differences in kinetics in highly active older adults and should serve as a starting point for investigating alternative explanations.

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E. Whitney G. Moore and Karen Weiller-Abels

Youth’s likelihood of participating in sport increases when they maintain a focus on enjoyment, learning, and effort (i.e., task goal orientation) rather than how they compare to others and norms (i.e., ego goal orientation). Achievement goal theory research consistently illustrates the significant influence of leader-created motivational climates on their participants’ goal orientation adoption. However, the influence of caring climate perceptions by highly competitive adolescent athletes on their goal orientation adoption has yet to be examined. Thus, this study assessed how competitive, adolescent soccer players’ perceptions of the climate as caring, task-, and ego-involving predicted their adoption of task and ego goal orientations. Players (N = 152, 62% female, 12–14 years of age) in the Olympic Development Program completed a survey that included measures of the caring climate, task-involving and ego-involving motivational climates, and task and ego goal orientations in soccer. Path analyses revealed males’ task goal orientation was significantly predicted by caring and task-involving climate perceptions. Females’ task goal orientation was significantly predicted by their task-involving climate perceptions. Ego goal orientation was significantly predicted by all athletes’ ego-involving climate perceptions. This is the first study to support the importance of fostering a high caring, as well as high task-involving, and low ego-involving climate when working with highly competitive adolescent athletes to keep their task goal orientation high. Research replicating this study is warranted to provide further support for these relationships longitudinally and across ages and sexes.

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Joseph O.C. Coyne, Sophia Nimphius, Robert U. Newton and G. Gregory Haff

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Bradley Fawver, Garrett F. Beatty, John T. Roman and Kevin Kurtz

The United States is one of the world’s perennial sports powers, yet the pathway to that success is littered with millions of youth athletes who either are not good enough to compete at a higher level or dropout from sport completely due to various personal, social, and organizational factors. These barriers are compounded by a win-at-all-costs mentality that pervades the U.S. sport culture and ultimately disenfranchises many youths from the opportunity to enjoy sport participation throughout their life. The authors argue that principle components in this flawed system are the lack of standardized coach education at the state and national level, weaknesses in the current curricula offered, and difficulties for aspiring coaches accessing existing training programs. In the current paper, the authors (a) briefly review the history of coach education in the United States as well as existing opportunities for coach education at the university, sport-specific, and private sectors; (b) provide a description of the strengths and weaknesses of the current coaching model; and (c) provide recommendations to improve coach education and training in the United States.

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Ivan A. Trujillo-Priego, Judy Zhou, Inge F. Werner, Weiyang Deng and Beth A. Smith

Wearable sensors are being used to measure intensity of infant physical activity across full days. The variability of infant activity intensity within and across days is important to study given the potential impact of physical activity on developmental trajectories. Using retrospective data, we analyzed the intensity of leg movements in 10 typically developing infants pre- and post-naptimes. Leg movement data were captured from 20 minutes before and after multiple events of naps across seven days for each infant. We hypothesized that leg movement intensity would be lower before a nap than after a nap potentially due to lower arousal and increased fatigue prior to attaining sleep. However, our results showed that leg movement intensity was not significantly different when comparing the 20-minute period pre- and post-naps (F(1,7) = 3.91, p = .089, ηp2=0.358). Our results are a first step in describing patterns of infant activity across days and highlights the need for further research regarding infant energy expenditure and physical activity.

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Arthur H. Bossi, Cristian Mesquida, Louis Passfield, Bent R. Rønnestad and James G. Hopker

Purpose: Maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) is a key determinant of endurance performance. Therefore, devising high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that maximizes stress of the oxygen-transport and -utilization systems may be important to stimulate further adaptation in athletes. The authors compared physiological and perceptual responses elicited by work intervals matched for duration and mean power output but differing in power-output distribution. Methods: Fourteen cyclists (V˙O2max 69.2 [6.6] mL·kg−1·min−1) completed 3 laboratory visits for a performance assessment and 2 HIIT sessions using either varied-intensity or constant-intensity work intervals. Results: Cyclists spent more time at >90%V˙O2max during HIIT with varied-intensity work intervals (410 [207] vs 286 [162] s, P = .02), but there were no differences between sessions in heart-rate- or perceptual-based training-load metrics (all P ≥ .1). When considering individual work intervals, minute ventilation (V˙E) was higher in the varied-intensity mode (F = 8.42, P = .01), but not respiratory frequency, tidal volume, blood lactate concentration [La], ratings of perceived exertion, or cadence (all F ≤ 3.50, ≥ .08). Absolute changes (Δ) between HIIT sessions were calculated per work interval, and Δ total oxygen uptake was moderately associated with ΔV˙E (r = .36, P = .002). Conclusions: In comparison with an HIIT session with constant-intensity work intervals, well-trained cyclists sustain higher fractions of V˙O2max when work intervals involved power-output variations. This effect is partially mediated by an increased oxygen cost of hyperpnea and not associated with a higher [La], perceived exertion, or training-load metrics.