The quality of a student-athlete’s experience can be a product of the services provided by their sponsoring sport organization. In an attempt to improve the student-athlete experience, this study was positioned to examine how collegiate sport services could use academic psychological capital (PsyCap) and student-athlete engagement to promote school satisfaction and psychological well-being. A total of 248 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I student-athletes participated in this study. Results indicated that academic classification moderated academic PsyCap’s influence on engagement. In addition, the academic PsyCap of the student-athletes positively influenced school satisfaction and psychological well-being, but student-athlete engagement fully mediated the relationship between academic PsyCap and psychological well-being. This empirical evidence provides new knowledge on the relationships among student-athletes’ motivational cognitive constructs, educational engagement, school satisfaction, and psychological well-being in the context of highly competitive collegiate sports. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed, including incorporating the results with services provided to student-athletes.
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Minjung Kim, Brent D. Oja, Han Soo Kim and Ji-Hyoung Chin
Alvaro Sicilia, Manuel Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Delia C. Dumitru, Adrian Paterna and Mark D. Griffiths
Fitness-related self-conscious emotions (SCEs) have been proposed as antecedents of exercise addiction (EA). However, the potential mechanisms underlying such a relationship remain unexplored. The present study examined the relationship between fitness-related SCEs and risk of EA, as well as the mediating role of passion for exercise. A total of 296 male runners (M = 40.35 years, SD = 10.69) completed a survey assessing weekly exercise frequency/hours, fitness-related SCEs, passion for exercise, and the risk of EA. The relationships between the study variables were examined using structural equation modeling. After controlling for age and weekly exercise frequency/hours, fitness-related SCEs of shame, guilt, and hubristic pride were positively associated with risk of EA. However, while guilt had direct effects on risk of EA, shame and hubristic pride showed indirect effects via obsessive passion. The results of the study are discussed, and some practical implications and future research directions are presented.
Shannon S.C. Herrick and Lindsay R. Duncan
Locker rooms operate as pivotal access points to physical activity across sports, physical education, and fitness facilities. However, locker rooms are predicated on cis-heterosexual assumptions that can be isolating to LGBTQ+ individuals. Using an online cross-sectional survey, LGBTQ+ adults (N = 1,067) were asked open-response questions about their past and present locker-room experiences. The resulting texts were independently coded by two researchers using thematic analysis and compared. All discrepancies were discussed with and rectified by a third researcher who acted as a critical peer. The results present distinct experiences across three intersecting aspects of embodiment: self-conscious—“I hate(d) being seen,” sexual transgression, and gender transgression. The findings provide insight into how harmful LGBTQ+ stereotypes influence locker-room experiences and support the redesign of locker rooms to challenge the binary organization of these spaces.
Benjamin J.I. Schellenberg, Jérémie Verner-Filion and Patrick Gaudreau
The aim of this research was to test if the ways passionate sport fans respond immediately after an important team victory depend on the extent to which passion is harmonious or obsessive. Fans of Liverpool F.C. (n = 299) and the Winnipeg Blue Bombers (n = 334) completed online surveys shortly after their teams had won an important championship game. Fans answered questions assessing passion and the extent to which they engaged in savoring (i.e., attempting to maintain, augment, or prolong positive emotions) and dampening (i.e., attempting to stifle positive emotions) after the victory. In both samples, the authors found that both harmonious and obsessive passion predicted greater savoring, but only obsessive passion predicted greater dampening. These findings build on previous research and suggest an additional reason for which harmonious and obsessive passion among sport fans tend to predict more and less adaptive outcomes, respectively.
Sandra C. Webber, Francine Hahn, Lisa M. Lix, Brenda J. Tittlemier, Nancy M. Salbach and Ruth Barclay
Objective: To determine the optimal threshold, based on cadence and lifestyle counts per minute, to detect outdoor walking in mobility-limited older adults. Methods: Older adults (N = 25, median age: 77.0 years, interquartile range: 10.5) wore activity monitors during 80 outdoor walks. Walking bouts were identified manually (reference standard) and compared with identification using cadence thresholds (≥30, ≥35, ≥40, ≥45, and ≥50 steps/min) and >760 counts per minute using low frequency extension analysis. Results: Median walking bout duration was 10.5 min (interquartile range 4.8) and median outdoor walking speed was 0.70 m/s (interquartile range 0.20). Cadence thresholds of ≥30, ≥35, and ≥40 steps/min demonstrated high sensitivity (1.0, 95% confidence intervals [0.95, 1.0]) to detect walking bouts; estimates for specificity and positive predictive value were highest for ≥40 steps/min. Conclusion: A cadence threshold of ≥40 steps/min is recommended for detecting sustained outdoor walking in this population.
Beatriz Bachero-Mena, Miguel Sánchez-Moreno, Fernando Pareja-Blanco and Borja Sañudo
Purpose: To analyze the acute and short-term physical and metabolic responses to resisted sprint training with 5 different loading conditions (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% body mass). Methods: Fifteen male participants performed 8 × 20-m sprints with 2-minute rests between sprints with 5 different loading conditions. Subjects performed a battery of tests (creatine kinase and lactate concentrations, countermovement jump, 20-m sprint, and isokinetic knee extension and flexion contractions) at 3 different time points (preexercise [PRE], postexercise [POST], and 24-h postexercise [POST24H]). Results: Results revealed significant increases in blood lactate for all loading conditions; however, as sled loadings increased, higher blood lactate concentrations and increments in sprint times during the training session were observed. Significant increases in creatine kinase concentration were observed from PRE to POST24H for all loading conditions. Concerning physical performance, significant decreases in countermovement-jump height from PRE to POST were found for all loading conditions. In addition, significant decreases in 20-m sprint performance from PRE to POST were observed for 0% (P = .05) and 80% (P = .02). No significant differences with PRE were observed for the physical-performance variables at POST24H, except for 20% load, which induced a significant decrease in mean power during knee flexion (P = .03). Conclusions: These results suggest that the higher the load used during resisted sprint training, the higher the physical-performance impairments and metabolic response produced, although all loading conditions led to a complete recovery of sprint performance at POST24H.
Tülay Çevik Saldıran, Emine Atıcı, Derya Azim Rezaei, Özgül Öztürk, Burcu Uslu, Burcu Ateş Özcan and Begüm Okudan
Context: The research on the change in properties of the lower leg muscles by different intensity sinusoidal vertical whole-body vibration (SV-WBV) exposures has not yet been investigated. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine effect of a 20-minute different intensity SV-WBV application to the ankle plantar flexor and dorsiflexor muscles properties and hamstring flexibility. Design: Prospective preintervention–postintervention design. Setting: Physiotherapy department. Participants: A total of 50 recreationally active college-aged individuals with no history of a lower leg injury volunteered. Interventions: The SV-WBV was applied throughout the session with an amplitude of 2 to 4 mm and a frequency of 25 Hz in moderate-intensity vibration group and 40 Hz in a vigorous-intensity vibration group. Main Outcome Measures: The gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscle tone was assessed with MyotonPRO, and the strength evaluation was made on the same lower leg muscles using hand-held dynamometer. The sit and reach test was used for the lower leg flexibility evaluation. Results: The gastrocnemius muscle tone decreased on the right side (d = 0.643, P = .01) and increased on the left (d = 0.593, P = .04) when vigorous-intensity vibration was applied. Bilateral gastrocnemius muscle strength did not change in both groups (P > .05). Without differences between groups, bilateral tibialis anterior muscle strength increased in both groups (P < .01). Bilateral gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscle tone did not change in the moderate-intensity vibration group (P > .05). Flexibility increased in both groups (P < .01); however, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups (d = 0.169, P = .55). Conclusions: According to study results, if SV-WBV is to be used in hamstring flexibility or ankle dorsiflexor muscle strengthening, both vibration exposures should be preferred. Different vibration programs could be proposed to increase ankle plantar flexor muscle strength in the acute results. Vigorous-intensity vibration exposure is effective in altering ankle plantar flexor muscle tone, but it is important to be aware of the differences between the lower legs.
Windee M. Weiss
Context: Sustaining effort and persistence throughout injury rehabilitation are common goals for sport health care professionals. Considerable research in the sport domain has explored the issue of commitment to sport, as well as what predicts or influences an athlete’s continued desire and resolve to continue participation. Scanlan and colleagues developed the sport commitment model (SCM) that places enjoyment as central construct influencing athletes’ commitment. According to the model, perceptions of enjoyment, personal investments, involvement opportunities, attractive alternatives, social constraints, and social support should predict an athlete’s level of sport commitment. One could argue the same may be true for commitment to sport injury rehabilitation. By applying the SCM to sport injury rehabilitation, practitioners may be able to enhance an athlete’s commitment to their rehabilitation, prolong adherence, and increase other positive outcomes, such as increased enjoyment, motivation, and successful return to competition. Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the applicability of the SCM to the injury rehabilitation setting. Design: Correlational design was used. Setting: Division I, intercollegiate athletic training room. Participants: 51 injured intercollegiate male and female athletes, 5 certified athletic trainers, and 8 senior, athletic training students. Intervention: At the approximate midpoint of each athlete’s injury rehabilitation, participants completed SCM measures. Certified athletic trainers and senior athletic training students independently assessed each injured athlete on effort, energy, and intensity during rehabilitation sessions. Main Outcome Measures: Rehabilitation commitment, enjoyment, investments, attractive alternatives, social constraints, perceived costs, and rehabilitation behaviors. Results: Higher perceptions of investments predicted rehabilitation commitment. However, none of the SCM determinants predicted athletic trainer–rated rehabilitation behaviors. Conclusions: Future research should continue to explore commitment constructs in relation to rehabilitation motivation.
Johannes Carl, Gorden Sudeck and Klaus Pfeifer
Background: The World Health Organization’s Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018–2030 states that physical activity interventions should strengthen peoples’ competencies for health. Yet, frameworks that bundle pivotal competencies for a healthy and physically active lifestyle have not been extensively discussed in the past. Results: In the present article, the authors therefore present the model of Physical Activity-related Health Competence (PAHCO), an integrative structure model including the 3 areas of movement competence, control competence, and self-regulation competence. After providing a rationale for the use of the competence concept, the authors focus on implications from the PAHCO model to guide interventions for the promotion of a healthy and physically active lifestyle. The authors argue that the PAHCO model is located at the interface between health literacy and physical literacy, research areas that have gained increasing scholarly attention in recent years. In addition, PAHCO appears to be compatible with the concept of health capability because it can represent the important aspect of agency. Conclusions: The article concludes with a scientific positioning of model components and some empirical results that have been accumulated so far.