Jill Thein-Nissenbaum, Deena M. Weiss, Stephanie A. Kliethermes, and Tamara A. Scerpella
Purpose: We assessed maintenance of skeletal advantages 3 years after completion of a 2-year, school-based, controlled exercise trial in adolescent girls. Method: Middle-school girls participated in a resistance training program embedded in physical education classes. Effort groups (low-effort group [LO] and high-effort group [HI]) were identified; the control group (CON) participated in standard physical education at a separate school. Baseline and follow-up (FU) assessments at 6, 18, and 54 (FU3) months included densitometry, anthropometry, and questionnaires assessing physical maturity and nonintervention organized physical activity. Linear mixed effects models were fit to evaluate bone outcomes across all FU time points for CON versus LO/HI. Results: Sixty-eight girls (23 CON/25 HI/20 LO) were 11.6 (0.3) years at baseline. Bone parameters did not differ at baseline, except femoral neck bone mineral density (LO < HI/CON, P < .05). Forty-seven participants provided FU3 assessment: 17 CON/16 HI/14 LO. After adjusting for height, gynecologic age, baseline bone, and organized physical activity, bone gains across all time points were greater for HI versus CON for legs bone mineral content, femoral neck bone mineral content/bone mineral density, and third lumbar vertebra bone mineral content/bone mineral density (P ≤ .05). At FU3, bone values were greater for HI versus CON at subhead, legs, femoral neck, and third lumbar vertebra (P < .03). Conclusion: Adolescent girls who exerted high effort in a school-based resistance training program demonstrated significant skeletal benefits 3 years after program completion.
Kimberly A. Clevenger, Melitta A. McNarry, Kelly A. Mackintosh, and David Berrigan
Purpose: To identify associations between amount of school recess provision and children’s physical activity (PA), weight status, adiposity, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, and muscular endurance. Method: Data from 6- to 11-year-old participants (n = 499) in the 2012 National Youth Fitness Survey were analyzed. Parents/guardians reported children’s PA levels and recess provision, categorized as no/minimal (9.0%), low (26.1%), medium (46.0%), or high (18.9%). Children wore a wrist-worn accelerometer for 7 days and completed anthropometric measurements. Fitness was assessed using grip strength and treadmill, pull-up, and plank tests. Cross-sectional linear and logistic regression compared outcomes across levels of recess provision adjusting for the survey’s complex sampling design. Results: Children with high provision of recess were 2.31 times more likely to meet PA guidelines according to parent report than those with no/minimal recess. Accelerometer-measured PA followed a more U-shaped pattern, wherein PA was higher in children with high, compared to low, recess provision but comparable to those with no/minimal recess provision. There were no associations with weight status, adiposity, or fitness. Conclusion: Current recess recommendations (20 min·d−1) may be insufficient as 30 minutes per day of recess was associated with a 2-fold greater likelihood of achieving recommended PA levels. Additional research on recess quantity and quality is needed.
Paul R. Hibbing, Seth A. Creasy, and Jordan A. Carlson
Physical behaviors (e.g., sleep, sedentary behavior, and physical activity) often occur in sustained bouts that are punctuated with brief interruptions. To detect and classify these interrupted bouts, researchers commonly use wearable devices and specialized algorithms. Most algorithms examine the data in chronological order, initiating and terminating bouts whenever specific criteria are met. Consequently, the bouts may encapsulate or overlap with later periods that also meet the activation and termination criteria (i.e., alternative bout solutions). In some cases, it is desirable to compare these alternative bout solutions before making a final classification. Thus, comparison-focused algorithms are needed, which can be used in isolation or in concert with their chronology-focused counterparts. In this technical note, we present a comparison-focused algorithm called CRIB (Clustered Recognition of Interrupted Bouts). It uses agglomerative hierarchical clustering to facilitate the comparison of different bout solutions, with the final classification being made in favor of the smallest number of bouts that comply with user-specified criteria (i.e., limits on the number, individual duration, and cumulative duration of interruptions). For demonstration, we use CRIB to assess bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity in accelerometer data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and we include a comparison against results from two established chronology-focused algorithms. Our discussion explores strengths and limitations of CRIB, as well as potential considerations and applications for using it in future studies. An online vignette (https://github.com/paulhibbing/PBpatterns/blob/main/vignettes/CRIB.pdf) is available to assist users with implementing CRIB in R.