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Melissa Jack, Ryan Tierney, Jamie Mansell and Anne Russ

Focused Clinical Question: In patients with myofascial trigger point pain, does dry needling result in greater decreases in pain compared to sham needling? Clinical Bottom Line: The evidence supporting dry needling as more effective than sham needling in reducing patients’ pain is mixed.

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Nicole J. Chimera, Monica R. Lininger, Bethany Hudson, Christopher Kendall, Lindsay Plucknette, Timothy Szalkowski and Meghan Warren

A novel technique of short message service (SMS), or text message, has examined injuries in elite handball and female football and community Australian football with a response rate of over 75%. The purpose of this study was to determine if text message is a feasible method of prospectively collecting injury density data in club sports teams in the United States. Participants received a weekly text message with four questions asking about pain and participation in the past week. If the participant indicated pain in the past week, a follow-up phone interview was conducted to determine the nature of the pain/injury. The overall text message response rate was 89.8%; there were 281 responses out of 313 participant contacts over the 12-week study period. Semi-structured follow-up phone interviews were completed for 37 of the 55 reports of pain that were indicated through text message response, resulting in further injury information for 65.5% of injuries. Incidence density of reporting pain over the 12-week study was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.68–1.15) per 1,000 min of activity. In this sample, text message response rates were similar to previous studies; however, we did lose nine (25.7%) participants to follow-up.

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Federico Jose Villalba and Melina Soledad Martínez

A 59-year-old male was referred to physical therapy due to shoulder pain. Computed axial tomography reveled a previous sternoclavicular injury, consistent with fracture-dislocation. This report describes the rehabilitation process of the patient with shoulder pain and a history of sternoclavicular joint fracture-dislocation. Thoracic mobility exercises, glenohumeral mobilizations, muscle strengthening, neuromuscular reeducation, and pain science education were used. The patient exhibited improvement in regard to pain, mobility, muscle strength, and self-reported questionnaires.

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Mark L. Howard

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Jimmy Sanderson, Matthew Zimmerman, Sarah Stokowski and Alison Fridley

This research explored maladaptive parasocial interaction (PSI) expressed toward Chicago Bears kicker Cody Parkey after he missed a potential game-winning field goal in the 2019 NFL (National Football League) playoffs. Using a sample of 512 tweets posted during the week after the game, qualitative analysis revealed that maladaptive PSI manifested in the following ways: criticism, threats, anger, and support. The results help better illuminate the nature of virtual abuse and maltreatment of athletes that is increasing in online spaces. Results also suggest that maladaptive PSI expressed online creates friction among fans who have to reconcile defeat with problematic behavior from other group members. Implications for sport organizations are discussed, including the need to support and protect athletes against virtual abuse and maltreatment.

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Michael J. Panza, Scott Graupensperger, Jennifer P. Agans, Isabelle Doré, Stewart A. Vella and Michael Blair Evans

Sport may protect against symptoms of mental disorders that are increasingly prevalent among adolescents. This systematic review explores the relationship between adolescent organized sport participation and self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression. From 9,955 records screened, 29 unique articles were selected that included 61 effect sizes and 122,056 participants. Effects were clustered into four categories based on the operationalization of sport involvement: absence or presence of involvement, frequency of involvement, volume of involvement, and duration of participation. Results from the random-effects meta-analyses indicated that symptoms of anxiety and depression were significantly lower among sport-involved adolescents than in those not involved in sport, although this effect size was small in magnitude. Meta-regression was used to identify how age and sex explained heterogeneity in effects. Although these results do not signify a causal effect, they do support theorizing that sport participation during adolescence may be a protective environment against anxiety and depressive symptoms.

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Leslie K. Larsen, Leslee A. Fisher, Terilyn C. Shigeno, Matthew P. Bejar and Melissa N. Madeson

While the policies National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletic departments have in place regarding social media and drug abuse have been empirically investigated, research on the full battery of rules implemented by NCAA teams is scant. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the written team rules of 41 NCAA Division I women’s basketball teams to better understand the types of rules that are in place and to hypothesize the effects these rules might have on the development of an autonomy-supportive environment. Using Consensual Qualitative Research, the research team constructed seven domains with multiple categories to represent the data. The domains included the following: (a) program expectations, (b) controlled communication, (c) controlled relationships, (d) controlled appearance/attire, (e) controlled social behavior, (f) recommendations for optimal physical performance, and (g) academic expectation. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that NCAA Division I women’s basketball coaches use team rules as a tool for domination rather than a strategy for developing the autonomy of student-athletes. We offer practical suggestions for coach educators, coach developers, and coaches on best practices when creating team rules to develop an autonomy-supportive environment that strengthens organizational loyalty and improves the experiences of student-athletes.

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Pamela Wicker, Sören Dallmeyer and Christoph Breuer

Given the increasing importance of athlete well-being in the sport policy debate, this study investigated the effects of socioeconomic factors on elite athletes’ well-being in less commercialized sports and provides comparisons with residents of similar age (18–30 years). This study used survey data from athletes who are supported by the German Sports Aid Foundation (n = 709) and from the German Socio-Economic Panel, containing comparable variables for residents (n = 2,455). Subjective well-being was measured with life satisfaction as a whole and satisfaction with important domains in life, including health, income, leisure time, and family life. The athletes scored lower on all well-being measures compared with young residents. The regression analyses revealed significant differences between athletes and young residents with regard to the effects of age, income, education, and sport hours on different well-being dimensions, suggesting that more needs to be done that the athletes’ investments into sport and education yield well-being benefits.

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Katie E. Misener

Parents are central stakeholders within the youth sport context, yet their own health and well-being can be compromised due to the extensive commitment required to support their child’s sport development. Against a backdrop of transformative sport service research and eudaimonic well-being, the study presents an autoethnography of my experience as a parent attempting to subvert the traditional role of parent–spectator by engaging in “sideline” physical activity simultaneous to my child’s sport. A secondary purpose is to identify the program and facility design attributes within the community sport environment that facilitate or inhibit the well-being of parents via simultaneous participation. This study highlights how the lines between researcher and subject can be blurred to challenge taken-for-granted assumptions and strengthen well-being through mastery, autonomy, personal growth, interpersonal relations, and self-acceptance. Through lived experience and personal voice, I hope that my story will open new possibilities for transformative practices within community sport.

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Emily J. Sleeman and Noora J. Ronkainen

Women’s elite football is in a transitional phase where coaches and players are increasingly offered professional contracts. The current study examined the stories of coaches currently operating in a women’s football academy in England to understand whether and how the professionalization of women’s football has influenced their coaching philosophy. Narrative interviews with 10 coaches (aged 23–60 years, two women) were carried out and analyzed using thematic narrative analysis. Observational data were also obtained while the authors were immersed within the environment. Two high-order themes were identified: (a) the coaches adapted their philosophy to meet the new needs of professionalization and (b) there were novel moral challenges surrounding the coaches’ approach to a dual career. The findings illustrated that the individuals developed a coaching philosophy that was adapted according to the coaching environment, which was largely informed from their previous experiences in men’s football. Player’s stories highlighted conflicting expectations surrounding dual careers.