Background: The study summarizes the findings of the 2018 Chilean Report Card (RC) on Physical Activity (PA) for Children and Adolescents and compares the results with the first Chilean RC and with other countries from the Global Matrix 3.0. Methods: A Research Work Group using a standardized methodology from the Global Matrix 3.0 awarded grades for 13 PA-related indicators based on the percentage of compliance for defined benchmarks. Different public data sets, government reports, and papers informed the indicators. Results: The grades assigned were for (1) “behaviors that contribute to overall PA levels”: overall PA, D−; organized sport participation, D−; active play, INC; and active transportation, F; (2) “factors associated with cardiometabolic risk”: sedentary behavior, C−; overweight and obesity, F; fitness, D; sleep, INC; and (3) “factors that influence PA”: family and peers, F; school, D; inclusion, INC; community and built environment, B; government strategies and investments, B−. Conclusions: Chile’s grades remained low compared with the first RC. On the positive side, Chile is advancing in environmental and policy aspects. Our findings indicate that the implementation of new strategies should be developed through collaboration between different sectors to maximize effective investments for increasing PA and decreasing sedentary time among children and adolescents in Chile.
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Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Sebastian Miranda-Marquez, Pia Martino-Fuentealba, Kabir P. Sadarangani, Damian Chandia-Poblete, Camila Mella-Garcia, Jaime Carcamo-Oyarzun, Carlos Cristi-Montero, Fernando Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Pedro Delgado-Floody, Astrid Von Oetinger, Teresa Balboa-Castillo, Sebastian Peña, Cristobal Cuadrado, Paula Bedregal, Carlos Celis-Morales, Antonio Garcia-Hermoso and Andrea Cortínez-O’Ryan
Alex M. Ehlert, Hannah M. Twiddy and Patrick B. Wilson
Caffeine ingestion can improve performance across a variety of exercise modalities but can also elicit negative side effects in some individuals. Thus, there is a growing interest in the use of caffeine mouth rinse solutions to improve sport and exercise performance while minimizing caffeine’s potentially adverse effects. Mouth rinse protocols involve swilling a solution within the oral cavity for a short time (e.g., 5–10 s) before expectorating it to avoid systemic absorption. This is believed to improve performance via activation of taste receptors and stimulation of the central nervous system. Although reviews of the literature indicate that carbohydrate mouth rinsing can improve exercise performance in some situations, there has been no attempt to systematically review the available literature on caffeine mouth rinsing and its effects on exercise performance. To fill this gap, a systematic literature search of three databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science) was conducted by two independent reviewers. The search resulted in 11 randomized crossover studies that were appraised and reviewed. Three studies found significant positive effects of caffeine mouth rinsing on exercise performance, whereas the remaining eight found no improvements or only suggestive benefits. The mixed results may be due to heterogeneity in the methods across studies, interindividual differences in bitter tasting, and differences in the concentrations of caffeine solutions. Future studies should evaluate how manipulating the concentration of caffeine solutions, habitual caffeine intake, and genetic modifiers of bitter taste influence the efficacy of caffeine mouth rinsing as an ergogenic strategy.
Luana Siqueira Andrade, Stephanie Santana Pinto, Mariana Ribeiro Silva, Paula Carolini Campelo, Samara Nickel Rodrigues, Mariana Borba Gomes, Vitor Lima Krüger, Graciele Ferreira de Ferreira and Cristine Lima Alberton
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 water-based aerobic training programs on functional capacity and quality of life (QoL) of older women. Design: Randomized clinical trial. Methods: A total of 41 women (64.3 [3.1] y) were randomized into a continuous (CTG) and an interval (ITG) water-based aerobic training group. Training programs were performed with exercise intensity based on rating of perceived exertion throughout 12 weeks (twice a week). Functional tests with and without dual-task and QoL questionnaire were applied pretraining and posttraining. Per protocol and intention to treat analysis were conducted using generalized estimating equations, with Bonferroni post hoc test (α = .05). Results: The per protocol analysis showed an increase in the 30-second chair stand (6% [12%] vs 18% [13%]), 6-minute walk (4% [7%] vs 2% [8%]), and 5-m habitual gait velocity (6% [11%] vs 4% [7%]) tests after CTG and ITG training groups. In addition, the intention to treat analysis revealed an increase in the 30-second chair stand test (7% [13%] vs 12% [13%]) and physical domain of QoL (8% [26%] vs 14% [22%]) after CTG and ITG training groups, as well as an increase in the gait velocity with verbal task after CTG (6% [11%]). Conclusions: Both water-based aerobic training programs induced similar improvements in the functional capacity and maintained the QoL perception in older women.
Rodrigo dos Santos Guimarães, Alcides Correa de Morais Junior, Raquel Machado Schincaglia, Bryan Saunders, Gustavo Duarte Pimentel and João Felipe Mota
Ergogenic strategies have been studied to alleviate muscle fatigue and improve sports performance. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has improved repeated sprint performance in adult team-sports players, but the effect for adolescents is unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on repeated sprint performance in semiprofessional adolescent soccer players. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 15 male semiprofessional adolescent soccer players (15 ± 1 years; body fat 10.7 ± 1.3%) ingested NaHCO3 or a placebo (sodium chloride) 90 min before performing the running anaerobic sprint test (RAST). A countermovement jump was performed before and after the RAST, and ratings of perceived exertion, blood parameters (potential hydrogen and bicarbonate concentration), and fatigue index were also evaluated. Supplementation with NaHCO3 promoted alkalosis, as demonstrated by the increase from the baseline to preexercise, compared with the placebo (potential hydrogen: +0.07 ± 0.01 vs. −0.00 ± 0.01, p < .001 and bicarbonate: +3.44 ± 0.38 vs. −1.45 ± 0.31 mmol/L, p < .001); however, this change did not translate into an improvement in RAST total time (32.12 ± 0.30 vs. 33.31 ± 0.41 s, p = .553); fatigue index (5.44 ± 0.64 vs. 6.28 ± 0.64 W/s, p = .263); ratings of perceived exertion (7.60 ± 0.33 vs. 7.80 ± 0.10 units, p = .525); countermovement jump pre-RAST (32.21 ± 3.35 vs. 32.05 ± 3.51 cm, p = .383); or countermovement jump post-RAST (31.70 ± 0.78 vs. 32.74 ± 1.11 cm, p = .696). Acute NaHCO3 supplementation did not reduce muscle fatigue or improve RAST performance in semiprofessional adolescent soccer players. More work assessing supplementation in this age group is required to increase understanding in the area.
Sarah A. Roelker, Elena J. Caruthers, Rachel K. Hall, Nicholas C. Pelz, Ajit M.W. Chaudhari and Robert A. Siston
Two optimization techniques, static optimization (SO) and computed muscle control (CMC), are often used in OpenSim to estimate the muscle activations and forces responsible for movement. Although differences between SO and CMC muscle function have been reported, the accuracy of each technique and the combined effect of optimization and model choice on simulated muscle function is unclear. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare the SO and CMC estimates of muscle activations and forces during gait with the experimental data in the Gait2392 and Full Body Running models. In OpenSim (version 3.1), muscle function during gait was estimated using SO and CMC in 6 subjects in each model and validated against experimental muscle activations and joint torques. Experimental and simulated activation agreement was sensitive to optimization technique for the soleus and tibialis anterior. Knee extension torque error was greater with CMC than SO. Muscle forces, activations, and co-contraction indices tended to be higher with CMC and more sensitive to model choice. CMC’s inclusion of passive muscle forces, muscle activation-contraction dynamics, and a proportional-derivative controller to track kinematics contributes to these differences. Model and optimization technique choices should be validated using experimental activations collected simultaneously with the data used to generate the simulation.
Thorben Hülsdünker, Martin Ostermann and Andreas Mierau
Although neural visual processes play a crucial role in sport, experiments have been restricted to laboratory conditions lacking ecological validity. Therefore, this study examined the feasibility of measuring visual evoked potentials in a sport-specific visuomotor task. A total of 18 international elite young table tennis athletes (mean age 12.5 years) performed a computer-based and a sport-specific visuomotor reaction task in response to radial motion-onset stimuli on a computer screen and table tennis balls played by a ball machine, respectively. A 64-channel electroencephalography system identified the N2 and N2-r motion-onset visual evoked potentials in the motion-sensitive midtemporal visual area. Visual evoked potential amplitudes were highly correlated between conditions (N2 r = .72, N2-r r = .74) although significantly lower in the sport-specific task than in the lab-based task (N2 p < .001, N2-r p < .001). The results suggest that sport-specific visual stimulation is feasible to evoke visual potentials. This emphasizes the investigation of visual processes under more ecologically valid conditions in sport and exercise science.
Sathvik Namburar, William Checkley, Oscar Flores, Karina M. Romero, Katherine Tomaino Fraser, Nadia N. Hansel, Suzanne L. Pollard and GASP Study Investigators
Background: The authors sought to examine physical activity patterns among children with and without asthma in 2 peri-urban communities in Lima, Peru, to identify socioeconomic and demographic risk factors for physical inactivity and examine the relationship between asthma and physical activity. Methods: The authors measured mean steps per day in 114 children (49 with asthma and 65 without) using pedometers worn over a 1-week period. They also used the 3-day physical activity recall to determine the most common activities carried out by children. Results: The authors found that 84.2% of the children did not meet the daily international physical activity recommendations. Girls took significantly fewer mean steps per day as compared with boys (2258 fewer steps, 95% confidence interval, 1042–3474), but no other factors, including asthma status, showed significant differences in the mean daily steps. Mean daily steps were positively associated with higher socioeconomic status among girls, and current asthma had a larger inverse effect on daily steps in boys when compared with girls. Conclusion: Physical activity levels were below recommended guidelines in all children. There is a need for policy and neighborhood-level interventions to address low physical activity levels among Peruvian youth. Special focus should be given to increasing the physical activity levels in girls.
Sebastian Kaufmann, Olaf Hoos, Timo Kuehl, Thomas Tietz, Dominik Reim, Kai Fehske, Richard Latzel and Ralph Beneke
Purpose: To analyze the energetic profiles of the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Tests 1 and 2 (YYIR1 and YYIR2). Methods: Intermittent running distance (IR1D and IR2D), time to exhaustion (IR1T and IR2T), and total recovery time between shuttles (IR1R and IR2R) were measured in 10 well-trained male athletes (age 24.4 [2.0] y, height 182  cm, weight 75.8 [7.9] kg). Respiratory gases and blood lactate (BLC) were obtained preexercise, during exercise, and until 15 min postexercise. Metabolic energy, average metabolic power , and energy share (percentage of aerobic [W AER], anaerobic lactic [W BLC], and anaerobic alactic energy system [W PCr]) were calculated using the PCr-La-O2 method. Results: Peak oxygen consumption was possibly higher in YYIR2 (60.3 [5.1] mL·kg−1·min−1) than in YYIR1 (P = .116, 57.7 [4.5] mL·kg−1·min−1, d = −0.58). IR1D, IR1T, and IR1R were very likely higher than IR2D, IR2T, and IR2R, respectively (P < .001, 1876  vs 672  m, d = −2.83; P < .001, 916  vs 304  s, d = −3.03; and P < .001, 460  vs 150  s, d = −2.83). Metabolic energy was most likely lower in YYIR2 than in YYIR1 (P < .001, 493.5 [118.1] vs 984.8 [171.7] kJ, d = 3.24). Average metabolic power was most likely higher in YYIR2 than in YYIR1 (P < .001, 21.5 [1.7] vs 14.5 [2.2] W·kg−1, d = 3.54). When considering aerobic phosphocreatine restoration during breaks between shuttles, W AER (P = .693, 49% [10%] vs 48% [5%], d = −0.16) was similar, W PCr (P = .165, 47% [11%] vs 42% [6%], d = −0.54) possibly higher, and W BLC (P < .001, 4% [1%] vs 10% [3%], d = 1.95) almost certainly lower in YYIR1 than in YYIR2. Conclusions: W AER and W PCr are predominant in YYIR1 and YYIR2 with almost identical W AER. Higher IR1D and IR1T in YYIR1 result in higher metabolic energy but lower average metabolic power and slightly lower peak oxygen consumption. Higher IR1R allows for higher reliance on W PCr in YYIR1, while YYIR2 requires a higher fraction of W BLC.
Stephen Harvey and Jeffrey P. Carpenter
Purpose: This descriptive study investigates the genesis and change in physical educators’ social media use for professional development and learning. Method: Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 48 physical educators who had actively used various social media professionally for an extended period of time. The data were analyzed inductively and aligned to the basic psychological needs defined by self-determination theory: relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Results: Building relationships with a trusted network of people and opportunities to express their autonomy were important drivers in the participants’ genesis and continued use of social media. Developing competence at both the start and throughout their social media journey was also critical. Discussion/Conclusions: The findings provide a starting point for in-depth research on the motivational characteristics underpinning physical educators’ reasons for starting and continuing to use social media for professional development and learning, and how these might change over time based on different psychological needs.
Nuria Romero-Parra, Victor Manuel Alfaro-Magallanes, Beatriz Rael, Rocío Cupeiro, Miguel A. Rojo-Tirado, Pedro J. Benito, Ana B. Peinado and on behalf of the IronFEMME Study Group
Context: The indirect markers of muscle damage have been previously studied in females. However, inconclusive results have been found, possibly explained by the heterogeneity regarding monitoring and verification of menstrual-cycle phase. Purpose: To determine whether the fluctuations in sex hormones during the menstrual cycle influence muscle damage. Methods: A total of 19 well-trained eumenorrheic women (age 28.6 [5.9] y; height 163.4 [6.1] cm; weight 59.6 [5.8] kg body mass) performed an eccentric-based resistance protocol consisting of 10 × 10 back squats at 60% of their 1-repetition maximum on the early follicular phase (EFP), late follicular phase, and midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Range of motion, muscle soreness, countermovement jump, and limb circumferences were evaluated prior to 24 and 48 hours postexercise. Perceived exertion was evaluated after each set. Results: Differences in sex hormones indicated that tests were adequately performed in the different menstrual-cycle phases. Prior to exercise, muscle soreness was higher in the EFP (4.7 [7.7]) than in the late follicular phase (1.1 [3.2]; P = .045). No other variables showed significant differences between phases. Time-point differences (baseline, 24, and 48 h) were observed in knee range of motion (P = .02), muscle soreness, countermovement jump, and between sets for perceived exertion (P < .001). Conclusion: Although the protocol elicited muscle damage, hormonal fluctuations over the menstrual cycle did not seem to affect indirect markers of muscle damage, except for perceived muscle soreness. Muscle soreness was perceived to be more severe before exercise performed in EFP, when estrogen concentrations are relatively low. This may impair women’s predisposition to perform strenuous exercise during EFP.