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Joffrey Drigny, Corentin Hingrand, Pauline Moysan, Thibaud Collet, and Benoit Mauvieux

Purpose: To assess the factors associated with continued cooling duration of core temperature ( T core ° ) after prolonged outdoor cold-water swimming. Methods: We designed a cohort study among swimmers participating in an outdoor cold-water swim during qualifying for the English Channel Swim. The day before the event, the participants completed a demographic questionnaire, and body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (mBCA 525, Seca). The swimming event consisted of laps over a 1000-m course, for up to 6 hours, in water at 12.5 to 13 °C. T core ° was measured using an ingestible temperature sensor (e-Celsius, BodyCap) during and up to 1 hour after the swim. Results: A total of 14 participants (38 [11] y; N = 14, n = 11 males, n = 8 in swimming costume and n = 6 in wetsuit) were included. Before swimming, T core ° was 37.54 (0.39) °C. The participants swam for an average of 194.00 (101.94) minutes, and mean T core ° when exiting the water was 35.21 (1.30) °C. The duration of continued cooling was 25 (17) minutes with a minimum T core ° of 34.66 (1.26) °C. Higher body mass index (r = .595, P = .032) and fat mass (r = .655, P = .015) were associated with longer continued cooling, independent of wetsuit wear. Also, the rate of T core ° drop during swimming (−1.22 [1.27] °C/h) was negatively correlated with the rate of T core ° gain after swimming (+1.65 [1.23] °C/h, r = −.682, P = .007). Conclusion: Increased body mass index and fat mass were associated with T core ° continued cooling duration after prolonged outdoor cold-water swimming at 12.5 to 13 °C. The rate of T core ° drop during swimming was negatively correlated with the rate of rewarming.

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Amélie Apinis-Deshaies, Maxime Trempe, and Jonathan Tremblay

Purpose: To evaluate whether sleep quantity and quality of professional hockey players is affected by external training load (TL), their perception of well-being, and contextual factors associated with match participation. Methods: Fifty male athletes were monitored daily during the 28 weeks of the regular season using well-being and sleep surveys. On-ice external TL was monitored using portable inertial measurement units during practices and matches. Linear mixed-effects models were applied to evaluate whether well-being perception (ie, pain, nutrition, stress, and rest) and external TL may affect sleep quality and quantity. Results: High levels of well-being positively affected sleep duration and quality (P < .001), whereas high-intensity TL had a detrimental impact on sleep duration (P = .007). Moreover, away and evening matches had a detrimental effect on sleep quantity and quality (P < .001). Finally, a high match on-ice load per minute had a negative association with sleep quality (P = .04). Conclusions: Findings indicate that well-being and high-intensity trainings can impair sleep duration and quality. In addition, high-intensity match load, away matches, and evening matches can impair postmatch sleep. Therefore, monitoring well-being in conjunction with TL is essential to understand sleep disturbances in athletes. Practitioners should also implement sleep hygiene strategies that facilitate longer time in bed after high-intensity, away, and evening matches to help athletes recover.

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Roger B. Myrholt, Paul Solberg, Henrik Pettersen, Olivier Seynnes, and Gøran Paulsen

Aims: In the present intervention study, low-velocity-loss (LVL) versus high-velocity-loss (HVL) thresholds in the squat and bench press were compared for changes in muscle strength, power, and hypertrophy. Methods: Strength-trained volunteers (7♀ and 9♂; age: 27.2 [3.4] y; height: 174.6 [8.0] cm; body mass: 75.3 [10.1] kg) were randomized into an LVL or HVL threshold group (LVL n = 3♀ + 5♂, and HVL n = 4♀ + 4♂). Training took place 3 times per week over 6 weeks (loads: ∼75%–90% of 1-repetition maximum [1RM]). The thresholds of LVLs and HVLs were set at 20% and 40% of maximal velocity, respectively, for the squat, and at 30% and 60%, respectively, for the bench press. Before and after the intervention, 1RM, leg press power, and squat jump were tested. The load (∼45% of 1RM) corresponding to 1-m/s velocity was assessed in all sessions for both exercises. In addition, the thickness of the vastus lateralis and triceps brachii and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DEXA]) were measured. Results: Squat and bench-press 1RM increased similarly in both groups by 7% to 11% (SD: 4%–6%, P < .05). No group differences were observed for changes in jump height, leg press power, or DEXA lean mass. However, HVL showed a small increase in muscle thickness of the vastus lateralis compared with LVL (6 ± 6% [95% CI] group difference, P < .05). Conclusion: For strength-trained individuals, high-volume lower-velocity-loss thresholds were as effective as higher thresholds for improvements in 1RM strength; but local hypertrophy was seemingly elicited faster with higher velocity-loss thresholds.

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Emma E. Schultz, Katerina Sergi, Gregg Twietmeyer, Nicolas M. Oreskovic, and Stamatis Agiovlasitis

Identifying factors that influence physical activity (PA) among individuals with Down syndrome is essential for PA promotion. Insight can be gained from guardians and health professionals. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of guardians and health professionals on facilitators and barriers of PA in individuals with Down syndrome. Interviews were conducted with 11 guardians (five mothers, four fathers, and two legal guardians) and 11 professionals (four PA specialists, three physical therapists, and four occupational therapists). Grounded theory was applied. Barriers and facilitators fit the levels of the ecological model of health behavior: (a) intrapersonal (perceived rewards), (b) interpersonal (interaction), (c) community (availability of programs), (d) organizational (school systems), and (e) policy (education). Guardians and professionals agreed on the importance of enjoyment, interaction, and programs to promote PA. Differences between groups were identified at the organizational and policy levels. PA in persons with Down syndrome is influenced by interactions between individual and environmental factors.

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Emeka Anaza, Paul Mabrey, Mikihiro Sato, Olivia Miller, and Julia Thompson

This research explored the usefulness of a mock-interview assignment through collaborative work between sport and recreation management faculty and communication center staff. The assignment paired entry-level undergraduate students working on mock-interviewing skills as job applicants with upper level undergraduate students acting as hiring managers for a series of mock interviews. Peer educators and faculty in the communication center conducted instructional workshops, provided direct student support and feedback, and facilitated the mock interviews. Data were collected on students’ insights of their job interview skills and career preparation during the 2019–20 academic year. The pivot to emergency remote learning during the spring 2020 semester led the assignment and research collection to happen virtually. The results and findings advocate the positive impact that role playing as hiring managers has on students, the effectiveness of students’ receiving multiple sources of feedback, and the value of virtual or online mock interviewing.

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Mengyi Wei, Kevin Andrew Richards, Naiman A. Khan, Amelia Mays Woods, Dorothy L. Espelage, and Kim C. Graber

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine children’s, camp counselors’, and activity leaders’ perceptions toward the effects of a 4-week teaching personal and social responsibility model-based summer learning and enrichment program and its ability to reduce bullying behaviors among school-age children. Method: Data collection included semistructured interviews with 30 children and eight camp staff. Child participants completed the following pre- and postsurveys: Personal and Social Responsibility Questionnaire and the Illinois Bullying Scale. In addition, daily observations over a 4-week period were recorded in a field notes log. Survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations, and all observational and interview data were coded using inductive and deductive techniques. Results: The results indicated that the implementation of teaching personal and social responsibility model was perceived to be associated with reduction in the bullying. Conclusion: Findings from the present study suggested teaching personal and social responsibility facilitated social and emotional learning and improved children’s personal and social responsibility.

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Eloi Gómez-Albareda, Ginés Viscor, and Iker García

Purpose: To analyze the effect of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on the maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) and performance of elite swimmers. Methods: Eight participants performed a 3000-m swimming test (T-3000), followed by blood lactate measurements at 1 and 5 minutes postexercise.. The testing protocol was carried out before and after 6 weeks of IMT, in which a high-volume IMT group (HV-IMT) (n = 4) performed IMT twice a day—in the morning in a seated position and in the afternoon in a concurrent session of IMT and core muscle training. Also, a low-volume IMT group (LV-IMT) (n = 4) performed IMT in the morning session only. Results: After the intervention, both groups improved their MIP, HV-IMT (132.75 [27.42] to 156.75 [21.88] cmH2O; P = .010; d = 0.967) and LV-IMT (149.25 [22.82] to 171.50 [23.74] cmH2O; P = .013; d = 0.955), without a significant difference between groups (P = .855). Regarding swimming performance, there were no changes between groups in the T-3000 (P = .472) or lactate removal rate (P = .104). Conclusion: IMT increased inspiratory muscle strength in elite swimmers, but there was no association or meaningful impact on swimming performance.

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André Rebelo, João R. Pereira, Diogo V. Martinho, Gerson Amorim, Ricardo Lima, and João Valente-dos Santos

Purpose: Most high-intensity bouts of exercise in volleyball consist of jumping activities, which are responsible for inducing muscle damage, high levels of fatigue, and muscle soreness. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to quantify and analyze the training loads, neuromuscular fatigue, and perceptual well-being of a 5-week in-season mesocycle carried out by a professional male volleyball team. Methods: Fifteen volleyball players (age 28.51 [5.39] y; height 193.19 [9.87] cm; body mass 88.46 [13.18] kg) participated in this study. Internal training load assessed through the rating of perceived exertion, external training load (ETL; evaluated using an inertial motion unit), countermovement jump (CMJ) height and peak power, and wellness questionnaire responses were obtained from all athletes. Results: Results indicated a progressive decrease of the internal training load during the week and by the undulatory pattern of the ETL during the microcycles. Moreover, training monotony increased across the microcycles and was negatively associated with CMJ peak power (r = −.681, P < .05). Finally, sleep quality (ρ = −.747, P < .01) and fatigue (ρ = −.789, P < .01) were negatively associated with weekly ETL. Conclusions: This study indicated that sleep quality and fatigue were negatively associated with weekly ETL. Therefore, decreases in weekly ETL might be needed to improve sleep quality and decrease fatigue in professional volleyball players. Plus, higher values of training monotony were associated with lower values of CMJ peak power. Consequently, avoiding training monotony might be important to improve jumping performance in professional volleyball athletes.

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Frederic Sabater-Pastor, Katja Tomazin, Grégoire P. Millet, Julien Verney, Léonard Féasson, and Guillaume Y. Millet

Purpose: Previous research has shown that maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) significantly influences performance in trail-running races up to 120 km but not beyond. Similarly, the influence of running economy on performance in ultratrail remains unclear. The aim of our study was, therefore, to determine the physiological predictors of performance in a 166-km trail-running race. Methods: Thirty-three experienced trail runners visited the laboratory 4 to 8 weeks before the race to undergo physiological testing including an incremental treadmill test and strength assessments. Correlations and regression analyses were used to determine the physiological variables related to performance. Results: Average finishing time was 37:33 (5:52) hours. Performance correlated significantly with VO2max (r = −.724, P < .001), velocity at VO2max (r = −.813, P < .001), lactate turn point expressed as percentage of VO2max (r = −.510, P = .018), cost of running (r = −.560, P = .008), and body fat percentage (r = .527, P = .012) but was not related to isometric strength. Regression analysis showed that velocity at VO2max predicted 65% of the variability in performance (P < .001), while a model combining VO2max and cost of running combined predicted 62% of the variability (P = .008). Conclusion: This is the first study to show that VO2max and velocity at VO2max are significant predictors of performance in a 166-km trail-running race. This suggests that ultratrail runners should focus on the development of these 2 qualities to optimize their race performance.

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George H. Franklin, Daniel J. Brown, Emma Vickers, and Grace E. Harrison

The number of elite athletes from the United Kingdom choosing to migrate to the United States is increasing. Grounded in the push–pull framework, this was the first study to exclusively explore the motivations and experiences of elite British female gymnasts who migrated to American universities and competed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Data were collected using semistructured interviews with seven former gymnasts and analyzed using thematic analysis. The results document how this pathway provided gymnasts with an opportunity to extend their career in a positive environment, escaping the intense and autocratic culture that dominated gymnastics in Britain. Moreover, this pathway facilitated lasting athletic and personal development including enhanced retirement from the sport. From a practice standpoint, it appears important that gymnasts be educated about the pathways available to them and that British sport organizations be supported in reshaping their environments to create more desirable and sustainable systems.