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Diego de Alcantara Borba, Eduardo da Silva Alves, João Paulo Pereira Rosa, Lucas Alves Facundo, Carlos Magno Amaral Costa, Aldo Coelho Silva, Fernanda Veruska Narciso, Andressa Silva and Marco Túlio de Mello

Background: Physical exercise plays an important role in metabolic health, especially in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) system. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of a single endurance and resistance exercise session on IGF-1 serum. Methods: The systematic review was performed in SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases. All analyses are based on random-effect models. The study identified 249 records of which 21 were included. Results: There was an effect of endurance exercise on total IGF-1 (P = .01), but not for free IGF-1 (P = .36). Resistance exercise similarly only affected total IGF-1 (P = .003) and not free IGF-1 (P = .37). The effect size indicated that total IGF-1 is more affected (ES = 0.81) by endurance than by resistance exercise (ES = 0.46). The present study showed that IGF-1 serum concentrations are altered by exercise type, but in conditions which are not well-defined. Conclusions: The systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that there is no determinant in serum IGF-1 changes for the exercise load characteristic. Therefore, physical exercise may be an alternative treatment to control changes in IGF-1 metabolism and blood concentration.

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Ivan A. Trujillo-Priego, Judy Zhou, Inge F. Werner, Weiyang Deng and Beth A. Smith

Wearable sensors are being used to measure intensity of infant physical activity across full days. The variability of infant activity intensity within and across days is important to study given the potential impact of physical activity on developmental trajectories. Using retrospective data, we analyzed the intensity of leg movements in 10 typically developing infants pre- and post-naptimes. Leg movement data were captured from 20 minutes before and after multiple events of naps across seven days for each infant. We hypothesized that leg movement intensity would be lower before a nap than after a nap potentially due to lower arousal and increased fatigue prior to attaining sleep. However, our results showed that leg movement intensity was not significantly different when comparing the 20-minute period pre- and post-naps (F(1,7) = 3.91, p = .089, ηp2=0.358). Our results are a first step in describing patterns of infant activity across days and highlights the need for further research regarding infant energy expenditure and physical activity.

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Irene Torres-Sánchez, Araceli Ortiz-Rubio, Irene Cabrera-Martos, María Granados-Santiago, Isabel López-Torres and Marie Carmen Valenza

Background: Growing evidence demonstrates the negative health impact of physical inactivity. Our aim was to examine the influence of previous-year physical activity (PA) on the cognition of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients during exacerbation. Methods: Observational study. One hundred and fifty-one patients with COPD exacerbation were recruited over a period of 3 years and divided in 2 groups according to their previous activity level. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, and clinical variables were collected. Our main outcome measures were previous-year PA level, measured using the Modified Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire and cognitive status measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Results: The cognitive variables that exhibited significant differences (P < .05) according to PA level were the visuoconstructional skills subscore, attention subscore, language subscore, orientation subscore, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment total score, with worse results in the sedentary group. Based on the relationships between total scores, the Baecke score was positively correlated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment total score (r = .457). Conclusions: The cognitive status of COPD patients during an exacerbation is related to previous-year PA level. Previous-year PA level should be taken into consideration when patients with a COPD exacerbation are evaluated.

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Meg E. Letton, Jeanette M. Thom and Rachel E. Ward

Background: Regular physical activity is of paramount importance to reduce chronic disease risk. Classical ballet training requires balance, strength, and range of motion. Participation in social ballet classes is increasing. Ballet training interventions may be an alternative method of regular, enjoyable activity. This review aimed to determine the effectiveness of classical ballet training interventions on physical and psychological health. Methods: Ten databases were searched until April 2019. The included studies investigated classical ballet training interventions of a ≥4-week duration, on any population (no restrictions on experience and clinical condition), measuring physical health or psychological outcomes. Results: Twenty-three studies (25 intervention groups) were included, comprising experienced (19 groups) and novice dancers (6 groups). In experienced populations, muscular strength was the most commonly reported outcome. However, only 25% of these studies reported improvements. With novice dancers, including clinical populations, balance showed the most positive change, improving in 75% of studies that reported this measure. Conclusions: Classical ballet training may improve balance in novices and maintain physical activity across the life span. Experienced dancers showed no further improvement, perhaps due to an already greater ability. There was large heterogeneity between the included studies. A greater focus on classical ballet interventions for inexperienced populations is required.

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Sergio Estrada-Tenorio, José A. Julián, Alberto Aibar, José Martín-Albo and Javier Zaragoza

Background: School environment provides several intervention opportunities for physical activity. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and academic achievement in adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from 301 students aged between 13 and 15 years (46.51% boys), enrolled at 7 secondary schools in the city of Huesca (Spain). Participants wore accelerometers during a 7-day period, and their academic achievement was calculated from the average marks of all subjects. Structural equation modeling and quadratic regression analysis were performed to test both linear and nonlinear explanatory models. One-way analysis of variance was also performed to explore the effect of gender and the percentage of compliance with MVPA recommendations. Results: MVPA on weekdays and higher levels of body mass index were negatively associated with academic achievement. According to the curvilinear relationship, those students whose MVPA levels were closer to the daily recommendation were more likely to obtain higher academic achievement. However, a significant association was only shown in the case of boys. Conclusions: Adolescents who satisfy the international recommendations tend to obtain better academic achievement. Therefore, MVPA for adolescents should be prescribed within some beneficial time margins (50–70 min/d).

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Richard R. Suminski, Gregory M. Dominick, Philip Saponaro, Elizabeth M. Orsega-Smith, Eric Plautz and Matthew Saponaro

Today’s technology could contribute substantially to measuring physical activity. The current study evaluated traditional and novel approaches for assessing park use. The traditional approach involved a trained observer performing the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) at 14 parks while wearing a point-of-view, wearable video device (WVD). The novel approach utilized computer vision to count park users in the WVD videos taken during in-person SOPARCs. Both approaches were compared to criterion counts from expert reviews of the WVD videos. In the 676 scans made during in-person SOPARCs, 293 individuals were observed while 341 were counted by experts in the corresponding WVD videos. When using scans/videos having individuals in them (84 scans/videos), intra-class correlations (ICC) indicated good-to-excellent reliability between in-person SOPARC and experts for counts of total women and men, within age groups (except seniors), of Blacks and Whites, and within intensity categories (ICCs > .87; p < 0.001). In a subsample of 42 scans/videos, 174 individuals were counted using computer vision and 213 by experts. When using 27 of the 42 WVD videos with individuals in them, ICCs indicated good reliability between computer vision and expert reviews (ICC = .83; p < 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed the concurrence of expert counts with both in-person SOPARC and computer vision counts decreased as the number of individuals in a scan/video increased. The results of this study support the use of a highly discrete method for obtaining point-of-view videos and the application of computer vision for automating the counting of park users in the videos.

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Susan Paudel, Alice J. Owen, Stephane Heritier and Ben J. Smith

Aim: To analyze the data from the World Health Organization Nepal STEPS survey 2013 to determine the prevalence of total and domain-specific physical activity (PA) and associated factors among Nepalese adults. Methods: A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to proportionately select participants from the 3 ecological zones (Mountain, Hill, and Terai) in Nepal. The Global PA Questionnaire was used to assess PA. The data were analyzed using quantile and ordinary least square regression. Results: Only 4% of the adults did not meet the World Health Organization PA guidelines. Age had a negative monotonic association with total PA and occupational PA, with the highest difference at the upper tails of the PA distribution. Lower total PA and occupational PA were associated with secondary or higher education, being retired or in unpaid employment, living in Terai or urban areas, and nonsmoking. Age, higher education, unpaid employment, and Terai or urban residence were negatively associated, while being currently married was positively associated with transport-related PA. Conclusion: Increasing age, higher education, unpaid employment, unemployment or retirement, and urban residence were associated with lower PA, with the stronger association at the upper tails of the distribution. The correlates had dissimilar associations across the quantiles of PA distribution.

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Kelly R. Evenson and Camden L. Spade

Purpose: A systematic review to summarize the validity and reliability of steps, distance, energy expenditure, speed, elevation, heart rate, and sleep assessed by Garmin activity trackers. Methods: Searches included studies published through December 31, 2018. Correlation coefficients (CC) were assessed as low (<0.60), moderate (0.60 to <0.75), good (0.75 to <0.90), or excellent (≥0.90). Mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE) were assessed as acceptable at <5% in controlled conditions and <10% for free-living conditions. Results: Overall, 32 studies of adults documented validity. Four of these studies also documented reliability. The sample size ranged from 1–95 for validity and 4–31 for reliability testing. Step inter- and intra-reliability was good-to-excellent and speed intra-reliability was excellent. No other features were explored for reliability. Step validity, across 16 studies, generally indicated good-to-excellent CC and acceptable MAPE. Distance validity, tested in three studies, generally indicated poor CC and MAPE that exceeded acceptable limits, with both over and underestimation. Energy expenditure validity, across 12 studies, generally indicated wide variability in CC and MAPE that exceeded acceptable limits. Heart rate validity in five studies had low-to-excellent CC and all MAPE exceeded acceptable limits. Speed, elevation, and sleep validity were assessed in only one or two studies each; for sleep, the criterion relied on self-report rather than polysomnography. Conclusion: This systematic review of Garmin activity trackers among adults indicated higher validity of steps; few studies on speed, elevation, and sleep; and lower validity for distance, energy expenditure, and heart rate. Intra- and inter-device feature reliability needs further testing.

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Willemijn M.J. van Rooij, H.J.G. van den Berg-Emons, Herwin L.D. Horemans, Malou H.J. Fanchamps, Fred A. de Laat and Johannes B.J. Bussmann

Purpose: A simple single-unit activity monitor (Activ8), which is based on a tri-axial accelerometer, measures specific body postures and movements, and has potential for research and clinical practice to monitor and optimize physical behavior of people with chronic conditions. However, the validity of the Activ8 in people with lower-limb amputation is unknown. Studying validity in this specific group is needed because they often have postures and movements that differ from the normal population, and which might affect validity. Therefore our study aimed to validate the Activ8 to measure body postures and movements in people with a lower-limb amputation. Methods: Thirty people with a unilateral lower-limb amputation and who are able to walk with a prosthesis completed two activity protocols in a simulated home setting: one with basic activities (only one posture or movement) and one with functional activities from daily living. Outcomes of the Activ8 (used in thigh-fixed position and pocket position) were compared to outcomes of video observation (the reference method). Primary analyses focused on the agreement in duration of merged measures of physical activity (walking, running, cycling, standing) and sedentary behavior (lying/sitting) with the Activ8 used in thigh-fixed position. Additional analyses included the detection of specific types of physical activity, the effects of amputation level and cause, and the validity of the Activ8 in pocket position. Results: Overall percentage time differences between Activ8 (thigh-fixed position) and video observation for merged measures of physical activity and sedentary behavior outcomes were −2.7% and 2.3%, respectively. These percentages were −1.6% and 1.3% for the basic protocol, and −3.9% and 3.6% for the functional protocol, respectively. For specific postures and movements, differences were larger (ranging from −12.6% to 7.1%). Conclusion: The Activ8 activity monitor has acceptable validity to measure physical activity and sedentary behavior in people with a unilateral lower-limb amputation.