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Nicholas L. Lerma, Chi C. Cho, Ann M. Swartz, Hotaka Maeda, Young Cho and Scott J. Strath

The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and acceptability of a seated pedaling device to reduce sedentary behavior (SB) in the homes of older adults. Methods: Each participant (N = 20) was outfitted with an activity monitor and seated pedaling device in the home for 7 days and randomly assigned to one of four light-intensity pedaling groups (15, 30, 45, and 60 min/day). Results: There was 100% adherence in all groups and significant group differences in the minutes pedaled per day (p < .001), with no significant difference in the total pedaling days completed (p = .241). The 15-, 30-, 45-, and 60-min groups experienced a 4.0%, 5.4%, 10.6%, and 11.3% reduction in SB on the days pedaled, respectively. Conclusion: Clinically relevant reductions in SB time were achievable in this 1-week trial. Long-term adherence and the impact of replacing SB with seated light activities on geriatric-relevant health outcomes should be investigated.

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Chonticha Kaewjoho, Thiwabhorn Thaweewannakij, Lugkana Mato, Saowanee Nakmaroeng, Supaporn Phadungkit and Sugalya Amatachaya

This single-blind, randomized controlled trial compared the effects of Thai dance exercise training on hard, soft, and sand surfaces on the functional outcomes of 120 community-dwelling older adults (40 subjects/group). The subjects were involved in a Thai dance exercise program on each surface, according to their groups, for 50 min/day, 3 days/week, for 6 weeks. The functional outcomes were assessed prior to training, at Week 3, and Week 6 after training. Subjects showed a significant improvement in all functional tests at 3 and 6 weeks after training, particularly in those who were trained on a sand surface and a soft surface (7–30% improvement, p < .05). The improvement was especially demonstrated in the complex and demanding motor activities after exercise on a soft and sand surface. Aside from attempting to modify training programs on a hard surface, the current findings suggest an alternative and cost-effective program to promote the levels of independence and safety that can be applied easily in clinical, home-based, and community settings.

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Hsin-Yen Yen and Hsuan Hsu

Engaging in healthy eating and active living is an effective strategy for preventing noncommunicable diseases in older populations. The purposes were to compare the prevalence rates across countries and explore health factors associated with healthy eating and active living. The data were retrieved from a cross-sectional study conducted by the International Social Survey Program (2011 Health and Healthcare), with structured questionnaire surveys in 32 countries. The results showed that 38.42% reported active living and 39.11% reported healthy eating among 11,250 total respondents. Older adults with a long-standing illness or obesity who felt that they were not overcoming problems and had lost confidence were less likely to engage in healthy behavior. Perceived general health had a positive association with the odds of engaging in healthy eating and active living. The international comparisons provide a reference for local governments to decrease health disparities. Inspiring self-awareness about health might encourage older adults to pursue healthy lifestyles.

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Susan G. Zieff and Claudia M. Guedes

Physical activity (PA) is a proven strategy for reducing risk of chronic disease. Many older adults do not reach recommended levels of activity to achieve health benefits. There is growing interest among scholars and practitioners about the potential of technology to increase PA and improve health. This study investigated knowledge of, attitudes toward, and experiences with PA technology among a sample of older adults to determine potential for use in interventions. Overall, participants indicated that they learned about their levels of PA, held positive attitudes toward, and reported good experiences with PA technology, including desired behavior change. Negative outcomes included concerns about risk from using PA technology. Outcomes from this study suggest the need for updated views of older adults and technology and potential health benefits from using PA technology.

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Alvaro Sicilia, Manuel Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Delia C. Dumitru, Adrian Paterna and Mark D. Griffiths

Fitness-related self-conscious emotions (SCEs) have been proposed as antecedents of exercise addiction (EA). However, the potential mechanisms underlying such a relationship remain unexplored. The present study examined the relationship between fitness-related SCEs and risk of EA, as well as the mediating role of passion for exercise. A total of 296 male runners (M = 40.35 years, SD = 10.69) completed a survey assessing weekly exercise frequency/hours, fitness-related SCEs, passion for exercise, and the risk of EA. The relationships between the study variables were examined using structural equation modeling. After controlling for age and weekly exercise frequency/hours, fitness-related SCEs of shame, guilt, and hubristic pride were positively associated with risk of EA. However, while guilt had direct effects on risk of EA, shame and hubristic pride showed indirect effects via obsessive passion. The results of the study are discussed, and some practical implications and future research directions are presented.

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Benjamin J.I. Schellenberg, Jérémie Verner-Filion and Patrick Gaudreau

The aim of this research was to test if the ways passionate sport fans respond immediately after an important team victory depend on the extent to which passion is harmonious or obsessive. Fans of Liverpool F.C. (n = 299) and the Winnipeg Blue Bombers (n = 334) completed online surveys shortly after their teams had won an important championship game. Fans answered questions assessing passion and the extent to which they engaged in savoring (i.e., attempting to maintain, augment, or prolong positive emotions) and dampening (i.e., attempting to stifle positive emotions) after the victory. In both samples, the authors found that both harmonious and obsessive passion predicted greater savoring, but only obsessive passion predicted greater dampening. These findings build on previous research and suggest an additional reason for which harmonious and obsessive passion among sport fans tend to predict more and less adaptive outcomes, respectively.

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Sandra C. Webber, Francine Hahn, Lisa M. Lix, Brenda J. Tittlemier, Nancy M. Salbach and Ruth Barclay

Objective: To determine the optimal threshold, based on cadence and lifestyle counts per minute, to detect outdoor walking in mobility-limited older adults. Methods: Older adults (N = 25, median age: 77.0 years, interquartile range: 10.5) wore activity monitors during 80 outdoor walks. Walking bouts were identified manually (reference standard) and compared with identification using cadence thresholds (≥30, ≥35, ≥40, ≥45, and ≥50 steps/min) and >760 counts per minute using low frequency extension analysis. Results: Median walking bout duration was 10.5 min (interquartile range 4.8) and median outdoor walking speed was 0.70 m/s (interquartile range 0.20). Cadence thresholds of ≥30, ≥35, and ≥40 steps/min demonstrated high sensitivity (1.0, 95% confidence intervals [0.95, 1.0]) to detect walking bouts; estimates for specificity and positive predictive value were highest for ≥40 steps/min. Conclusion: A cadence threshold of ≥40 steps/min is recommended for detecting sustained outdoor walking in this population.

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Johannes Carl, Gorden Sudeck and Klaus Pfeifer

Background: The World Health Organization’s Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018–2030 states that physical activity interventions should strengthen peoples’ competencies for health. Yet, frameworks that bundle pivotal competencies for a healthy and physically active lifestyle have not been extensively discussed in the past. Results: In the present article, the authors therefore present the model of Physical Activity-related Health Competence (PAHCO), an integrative structure model including the 3 areas of movement competence, control competence, and self-regulation competence. After providing a rationale for the use of the competence concept, the authors focus on implications from the PAHCO model to guide interventions for the promotion of a healthy and physically active lifestyle. The authors argue that the PAHCO model is located at the interface between health literacy and physical literacy, research areas that have gained increasing scholarly attention in recent years. In addition, PAHCO appears to be compatible with the concept of health capability because it can represent the important aspect of agency. Conclusions: The article concludes with a scientific positioning of model components and some empirical results that have been accumulated so far.

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Ashley B. West, Adam R. Konopka, Kelli A. LeBreton, Benjamin F. Miller, Karyn L. Hamilton and Heather J. Leach

This study examined the feasibility and effects of a 1-hr physical activity (PA) behavior change (PABC) discussion session on PA, 12 weeks after completing an exercise trial. Adults at high risk of Type II diabetes were randomized to the PABC or a control group. PA was self-reported using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Chi-square tests compared the proportion of participants classified as moderately active or greater at the 12-week follow-up. Participants (N = 50) were M = 61.8 ± 5.5 years old and mostly female (80%). All participants completed the PABC discussion session, and compliance with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire at 12-week follow-up was 78%. Barrier self-efficacy increased immediately following the PABC (MΔ0.5 ± 0.9; t(22) = −2.45, p = .023). At 12-week follow-up, 88% in the PABC were moderately active or greater, compared with 50% in the control (p = .015). Incorporating a PABC discussion session as part of an exercise efficacy trial was feasible and may help improve PA maintenance.

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Jing Liao, Yung-Jen Yang and Dong (Roman) Xu

Background: Evidence suggests the importance of physical activity and social engagement in cognitive preservation. Group-based dancing combining exercise and prosocial features may generate physical and cognitive benefits. Objectives: To investigate the association between multiyear habitual square dancing and domain-specific cognitive function, and assess the relative importance and joint impact of physical activity and social activity on cognition. Methods: Using the cross-sectional propensity score matching method, the study compared the mental status, episodic memory, and overall cognitive performances of 145 amateur female square-dancing participants (aged ≥45 y) to their sociodemographic- and health-status–matched 222 nondancing counterparts, selected from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Results: The authors found a positive association between multiyear square dancing (average 8 y) and overall cognitive performances (mean difference = 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65 to 4.02), which was apparent in processing capacity (2.29; 95% CI, 1.51 to 3.07) but not in memory (0.55; 95% CI, −0.13 to 1.23). The hypothesized synergic effect of physical activity and social activity on cognition was only observed in group-based exercises embodying these 2 components simultaneously. Conclusions: Long-term square dancing as one type of physically and socially engaging activities may preserve cognition. Future longitudinal and interventional studies are needed to further clarify the causal relationship.