Background: This study examined the compliance with the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines among Hong Kong adolescents and its associations with body mass index (BMI). Methods: A total of 1039 adolescents (11–18 y) wore the activPAL™ for 24 hours for 7 consecutive days to assess physical activity (PA) and sleep duration. Screen time was measured using the Children’s Leisure Activities Study Survey (Chinese version). Linear mixed models were performed for analysis. Results: The analytic sample consisted of 692 adolescents (53% girls). Only 1.0% of the adolescents met all of the recommendations. The proportions of adolescents who met the recommendation for PA, screen time, and sleep were 9.1%, 31.2%, and 38.6%, respectively. Adolescent boys who did not meet the PA recommendation (β = 3.36; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.68; P = .001) and those who did not meet the combination of PA and sleep recommendations (β = 2.10, 95% CI, 0.64 to 3.56; P = .01) had a higher body mass index than those who met the respective recommendations. Conclusions: Compliance with the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines was alarmingly low among Hong Kong adolescents. Meeting the PA recommendation or the combination of PA and sleep recommendations was associated with a healthier body weight in boys.
Yan Shi, Wendy Yajun Huang, Cindy Hui-Ping Sit and Stephen Heung-Sang Wong
Paul J. Collings, Diane Farrar, Joanna Gibson, Jane West, Sally E. Barber and John Wright
Background: Physical activity performed while pregnant is beneficially associated with maternal cardiovascular health. It is unknown if benefits extend to neonatal cardiovascular health. This study investigated associations of maternal physical activity with neonatal cord blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. Methods: Cord blood lipids were measured at birth in a pseudorandomly selected subgroup of Born in Bradford birth cohort participants (N = 1634). Pregnant women were grouped into 4 activity categories (inactive/somewhat active/moderately active/active) based on their self-reported physical activity at 26- to 28-weeks gestation. Regression was used to calculate adjusted mean differences in neonatal cord blood lipid concentrations among the 4 groups of physical activity. Results: Maternal physical activity was associated with higher neonatal cord blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Cord blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was higher in neonates of women who were somewhat and moderately active compared with neonates of women who were inactive. There were no associations of pregnancy physical activity with triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or adiponectin levels. Conclusions: Maternal physical activity is favorably associated with neonatal cord blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. This novel beneficial finding highlights the potential for physical activity in pregnancy to aid the early prevention of cardiovascular disease.
Salomé Aubert, Julien Aucouturier, Jeremy Vanhelst, Alicia Fillon, Pauline Genin, Caroline Ganière, Corinne Praznoczy, Benjamin Larras, Julien Schipman, Martine Duclos and David Thivel
Background: Insufficient levels of physical activity and increasing sedentary time among children and youth are being observed internationally. The purpose of this paper is to summarize findings from France’s 2018 Report Card on physical activity for children and youth, and to make comparisons with its 2016 predecessor and with the Report Cards of other countries engaged in the Global Matrix 3.0. Methods: The France’s 2018 Report Card was developed following the standardized methodology established for the Global Matrix 3.0 by grading 10 common physical activity indicators using best available data. Grades were informed by national surveys, peer-reviewed literature, government and nongovernment reports, and online information. Results: The expert panel awarded the following grades: overall physical activity, D; organized sport participation and physical activity, C−; active play, INC; active transportation, C−; sedentary behaviors, D−; physical fitness, B–; family and peers, INC; school, B; community and the built environment, INC; and government, C. Conclusions: Very concerning levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviors among French children and youth were observed, highlighting the urgent need for well-designed national actions addressing the presented physical inactivity crisis. The top 3 strategies that should be implemented in priority to improve the lifestyle of French children and youth are provided.
Background: As a behavior change technique, implementation intentions are a cost-effective strategy to promote physical activity and exercise. This technique helps individuals plan when and where they will do a behavior. However, previous research on implementation intentions and physical activity has shown heterogeneous outcomes. Methods: The primary aim of this review was to systematically review the literature on the social cognitive variables that moderate the mediating effects of implementation intentions on physical activity and exercise. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, 22 papers yielded 24 studies. Of the 24 reviewed studies, 1 was cross-sectional, 12 were randomized control trials, 10 were longitudinal, and 1 was secondary data from a randomized control trial. Results: Habit strength, self-concordance, self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, and intention were identified as moderating variables. Conditions for effectiveness for implementation intentions were observed. Implementation intentions are an effective behavior change technique for individuals who have preexisting intentions and strong self-efficacy. Conclusions: Implementation intentions may be a valuable behavior change technique for certain individuals. For self-efficacious individuals who desire to be physically active, implementation intentions can help translate intentions into behavior.
Melanna F. Cox, Greg J. Petrucci Jr., Robert T. Marcotte, Brittany R. Masteller, John Staudenmayer, Patty S. Freedson and John R. Sirard
Purpose: Develop a direct observation (DO) system to serve as a criterion measure for the calibration of models applied to free-living (FL) accelerometer data. Methods: Ten participants (19.4 ± 0.8 years) were video-recorded during four, one-hour FL sessions in different settings: 1) school, 2) home, 3) community, and 4) physical activity. For each setting, 10-minute clips from three randomly selected sessions were extracted and coded by one expert coder and up to 20 trained coders using the Observer XT software (Noldus, Wageningen, the Netherlands). The coder defines each whole-body movement which was further described with three modifiers: 1) locomotion, 2) activity type, and 3) MET value (used to categorize intensity level). Percent agreement was calculated for intra- and inter-rater reliability. For intra-rater reliability, the criterion coder coded all 12 clips twice, separated by at least one week between coding sessions. For inter-rater reliability, coded clips by trained coders were compared to the expert coder. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) were calculated to assess the agreement of intensity category for intra- and inter-rater comparisons described above. Results: For intra-rater reliability, mean percent agreement ranged from 91.9 ± 3.9% to 100.0 ± 0.0% across all variables in all settings. For inter-rater reliability, mean percent agreement ranged from 88.2 ± 3.5% to 100.0 ± 0.0% across all variables in all settings. ICCs for intensity category ranged from 0.74–1.00 and 0.81–1.00 for intra- and inter-rater comparisons, respectively. Conclusion: The DO system is reliable and feasible to serve as a criterion measure of FL physical activity in young adults to calibrate accelerometers, subsequently improving interpretation of surveillance and intervention research.
Dimitrios Poulimeneas, Maria I. Maraki, Eleni Karfopoulou, Yannis Koutras, Stavrie Chrysostomou, Costas A. Anastasiou, Stavros A. Kavouras and Mary Yannakoulia
Background: Although plenty of evidence indicates that weight loss maintainers are highly physically active, studies focusing on the sex-specific differences in activity levels between maintainers and regainers are scarce. The authors aimed to investigate sex-specific differences in activity patterns in a cohort of Mediterranean maintainers and regainers. Methods: Sample includes 756 participants of the MedWeight registry (60.5% women), aged 18–65 years, who lost ≥10% of their initial weight, and either maintained their loss for ≥12 months or regained it. Participants completed a series of questionnaires, including demographics and weight history. Activity levels were evaluated with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short version. Results: Maintainers of both sexes were, in total, more active than their same-sex regainers. When specific activities were considered, women maintainers spent more time walking than regainers (P adjusted = .02), whereas men maintainers spent more time in vigorous activities (P adjusted = .001) and walking than regainers (P adjusted = .001). Modest increments in activity of sex-relevant intensity were associated with increased odds for maintenance. Conclusions: Maintainers attained a more active lifestyle than their same-sex regainers, involving more walking for both sexes and more vigorous activities for men. The detected differences, according to activity intensity, support that activity patterns associated with successful weight loss are distinguishable between sexes.
Tyler Prochnow, Haley Delgado, Megan S. Patterson and M. Renée Umstattd Meyer
Background: Regular physical activity (PA) has many benefits for children and adolescents, yet many do not meet PA recommendations. Social context is important for promoting or discouraging PA among children and adolescents. This review aimed to identify social network variables related to PA among children and adolescents. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted in September 2018 using PsycINFO, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science. Included articles needed to (1) be focused on children (aged 5–11 y) or adolescents (aged 12–17 y), (2) include a measure of PA, (3) include a measure of egocentric or sociocentric social connection in which alters were nominated, and (4) perform an analysis between network data and PA. Results: A search of 11,824 articles was refined to a final sample of 29 articles. Social network themes and concepts such as homophily, centrality, and network composition were related to child and adolescent PA behavior across the literature. Conclusions: The impact of an individual’s social network is evident on their PA behaviors. More research is needed to examine why these networks form in relation to PA and how interventions can utilize social network analysis to more effectively promote PA, especially in underserved and minority populations.
Kelsie M. Full, Eileen Johnson, Michelle Takemoto, Sheri J. Hartman, Jacqueline Kerr, Loki Natarajan, Ruth E. Patterson and Dorothy D. Sears
Background: For breast cancer survivors, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with improved survival. Less is known about the interrelationships of daytime activities (sedentary behavior [SB], light-intensity physical activity, and MVPA) and associations with survivors’ health outcomes. This study will use isotemporal substitution to explore reallocations of time spent in daytime activities and associations with cancer recurrence biomarkers. Methods: Breast cancer survivors (N = 333; mean age 63 y) wore accelerometers and provided fasting blood samples. Linear regression models estimated the associations between daytime activities and cancer recurrence biomarkers. Isotemporal substitution models estimated cross-sectional associations with biomarkers when time was reallocated from of one activity to another. Models were adjusted for wear time, demographics, lifestyle factors, and medical conditions. Results: MVPA was significantly associated with lower insulin, C-reactive protein, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, and glucose, and higher sex hormone-binding globulin (all P < .05). Light-intensity physical activity and SB were associated with insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (both P < .05). Reallocating 18 minutes of SB to MVPA resulted in significant beneficial associations with insulin (−9.3%), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (−10.8%), glucose (−1.7%), and sex hormone-binding globulin (7.7%). There were no significant associations when 79 minutes of SB were shifted to light-intensity physical activity. Conclusions: Results illuminate the possible benefits for breast cancer survivors of replacing time spent in SB with MVPA.
Rachel G. Curtis, Dorothea Dumuid, Timothy Olds, Ronald Plotnikoff, Corneel Vandelanotte, Jillian Ryan, Sarah Edney and Carol Maher
Background: Substantial evidence links activity domains with health and well-being; however, research has typically examined time-use behaviors independently, rather than considering daily activity as a 24-hour time-use composition. This study used compositional data analysis to estimate the difference in physical and mental well-being associated with reallocating time between behaviors. Methods: Participants (n = 430; 74% female; 41  y) wore an accelerometer for 7 days and reported their body mass index; health-related quality of life (QoL); and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Regression models determined whether time-use composition, comprising sleep, sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), was associated with well-being. Compositional isotemporal substitution models estimated the difference in well-being associated with reallocating time between behaviors. Results: Time-use composition was associated with body mass index and physical health-related QoL. Reallocating time to MVPA from sleep, sedentary behavior, and LPA showed favorable associations with body mass index and physical health-related QoL, whereas reallocations from MVPA to other behaviors showed unfavorable associations. Reallocations from LPA to sedentary behavior were associated with better physical health–related QoL and vice versa. Conclusion: Results reinforce the importance of MVPA for physical health but do not suggest that replacing sedentary behavior with LPA is beneficial for health and well-being.
Annika Frahsa, Anna Streber, Andrea R. Wolff and Alfred Rütten
This study builds upon Sen’s seminal capability approach to analyze the interplay of individual and structural factors for immigrants’ physical activity (PA) in old age. The authors conducted software-assisted thematic analysis of group interviews with Turkish- and Russian-speaking immigrants aged 65 years and older in Germany (n = 19). The authors present how interviewees perceive diverse resources, environmental, social, and individual factors that shape their capabilities for PA. Age-related health literacy, family support, and access rules to sport opportunities shape both groups’ capabilities for PA. Turkish interviewees’ continuous bilocation and Russian interviewees’ past experience with PA as workplace exercise are two major differences between those groups. Results indicate that capabilities are ambiguous—managed and shaped by individuals, which makes more static terms like barriers and options less helpful for an analysis. Systematically applying the capability approach in intervention research would allow to analyze interaction and to ultimately better reach underserved groups like immigrants 65 years and older.