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Maureen R. Weiss

Children and youth participate in physical activities to develop and demonstrate physical competence, attain social acceptance and approval, and experience enjoyment. Satisfying these motives enhances interest in sustaining physical activity, which contributes to improved motor skills, self-confidence, social relationships, and other positive outcomes. My essay explores motor skill development and youth physical activity through a social psychological lens and the benefits of integrating scientific knowledge from our respective fields to inform research and professional practice. Motor development and sport psychology researchers can collaborate to address critical issues related to motor and perceived competence and physical activity. I recommend five ways for integrating knowledge: (1) applying social psychological theory to guide research questions, (2) using more longitudinal designs, (3) using a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods, (4) designing studies on physical literacy, and (5) employing a positive youth development (PYD) approach for improving motor and social-emotional skills. These efforts can assist teachers, coaches, and parents in creating opportunities for youth to learn and improve fundamental motor and sport skills and to achieve feelings of competence, autonomy, relatedness, and joy for motivating a lifetime of physical activity.

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Christopher Johansen, Kim D. Reynolds, Jennifer Wolch, Jason Byrne, Chih-Ping Chou, Sarah Boyle, Donna Spruijt-Metz, Brianna A. Lienemann, Susan Weaver and Michael Jerrett

Background: Urban trails are a useful resource to promote physical activity. This study identified features of urban trails that correlated with trail use. Methods: Multiuse urban trails were selected in Chicago, Dallas, and Los Angeles. An audit of each trail was completed using the Systematic Pedestrian and Cyclist Environmental Scan for Trails instrument, identifying built environmental features. A self-report of trail use was obtained from trailside residents (N = 331) living within 1 mile of each trail. Univariate and multivariate Poisson regressions controlled for trail time from home and motivation for physical activity. Results: Positive associations with the past month’s hours on the trail were observed for the presence of distance signs, vegetation height, vegetation maintenance, and trail crowding, and a negative association was observed for the presence of crossings on the trail. Positive associations with dichotomous trail use were observed for the presence of distance signs, vegetation height, and vegetation maintenance, and a negative association was observed for the presence of crossings on the trail. Conclusions: These correlates should be confirmed in other studies and, if supported, should be considered in the promotion and design of urban trails.

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Yasmín Ezzatvar, Joaquín Calatayud, Lars L. Andersen and José Casaña

Background: Musculoskeletal pain (MP) is common among health care professionals, including physical therapists (PTs). The physically demanding nature of their work might contribute to increase MP rates. Strength training has a positive effect on musculoskeletal health and MP. However, no studies have evaluated the association of strength training during leisure time on MP among PTs. This study aims to analyze the association between frequency and intensity of strength training during leisure time and MP in the back, neck–shoulder, and arm–hand among PTs. Methods: Data on MP and intensity and frequency of strength training were obtained using a questionnaire responded by 1006 PTs. The odds for having lower level of MP as a function of intensity or frequency of the strength training were estimated using binary logistic regression. Results: High-intensity strength training showed strong associations with lower intensity of MP in neck–shoulder (odds ratio = 5.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–18.92), arm–hand (odds ratio = 5.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–24.51), and back (odds ratio = 5.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.41–19.28). However, frequency and lower intensities were not significantly associated with MP in any body part. Conclusions: High-intensity strength training is strongly associated with lower levels of MP in arm–hand, neck–shoulder, and back, whereas no association was found with frequency or lower intensities.

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Edson Filho

By bridging the literature on shared mental models and the individual zones of optimal functioning, the author advances a new framework called the shared zones of optimal functioning. The shared zones of optimal functioning is a probabilistic methodology designed to (a) capture optimal and suboptimal performance experiences in teams, (b) track team momentum through the analysis of within-team performance fluctuations, and (c) estimate within-team psycho–bio–social synchrony and leader–follower dynamics (i.e., leader–follower dichotomy, shared leadership). To test the shared zones of optimal functioning framework, three dyadic juggling teams were asked to juggle for 60 trials, while having their performance, arousal, pleasantness, and attentional levels recorded. Ordinal logistic regression, frequency counts, and cross-correlation analyses revealed that each team showed idiosyncratic affective and attentional levels linked to optimal performance, team momentum patterns, and leader–follower dynamics. The implications of these findings for the development of high-performing teams and specific avenues of future research are discussed throughout.

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Ellen J. Staurowsky

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Fabian Kautz, Michael Schaffrath and Alex C. Gang

The sport industry has long used social media as an effective instrument of communication. In the framework of the current study, a content analysis investigated how professional sport clubs in Germany use Facebook and Twitter. The study covers the entire 2015–16 season, which was illustrated via selectively choosing 2 weeks for data analysis; four clubs each from basketball, ice hockey, football, and handball were collected as a sample. All Facebook posts and Twitter tweets published by the 16 clubs during the 2 weeks, a total of 3,412 contributions (Facebook 717, Twitter 2,695), were included in the analysis. The codebook contained 57 variables, and this article presents the results on the identified topics of the published contents on the two social media platforms. On both platforms, the clubs under examination primarily issued statements regarding themselves and their sport-related activities. Twitter is predominantly used as a live medium during games, whereas Facebook allows for significantly greater reach. However, no sport-related differences were found between the two social media platforms.

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Ilona I. McMullan, Brendan P. Bunting, Lee Smith, Ai Koyanagi and Mark A. Tully

Research suggests that physical activity (PA) has many health benefits for an aging population. Evidence exploring the association between PA and vision is limited. This study includes the measures of self-reported PA (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) and self-rated vision at three points in time over a 6-year period used in the Irish Longitudinal study of Ageing, a cohort of community-dwelling older adults (50 years or older). A path analysis found that PA was indirectly associated with vision over 6 years controlling for age, sex, marital status, employment, education, depression (Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), self-reported general health, cardiovascular disease (e.g., heart attack), high blood pressure, diabetes, eye disease (e.g., glaucoma, diabetic eye disease, macular degeneration, cataract), and disabilities associated with activities of daily living. Further research is needed to fully understand the relationship over time and generalize the findings.

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George B. Cunningham and Calvin Nite

Drawing from concepts in institutional theory, the purpose of this study was to examine how community measures intersect with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender inclusiveness to predict organizational success. The authors collected publicly available data about National Collegiate Athletic Association departments (N = 65) and their communities. Moderated regression analyses demonstrated significant interactive effects, such that performance was highest when the department followed an inclusive strategy and (a) the lesbian, gay, and bisexual population density was high and (b) the state-level implicit bias toward sexual minorities was low. Importantly, there were no negative effects in following an inclusive strategy, even when institutional logics did not prescribe such an approach. The models explained 60–62% of the variance in performance. The authors discuss theoretical and practical implications.