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Thorben Hülsdünker, Martin Ostermann and Andreas Mierau

Although neural visual processes play a crucial role in sport, experiments have been restricted to laboratory conditions lacking ecological validity. Therefore, this study examined the feasibility of measuring visual evoked potentials in a sport-specific visuomotor task. A total of 18 international elite young table tennis athletes (mean age 12.5 years) performed a computer-based and a sport-specific visuomotor reaction task in response to radial motion-onset stimuli on a computer screen and table tennis balls played by a ball machine, respectively. A 64-channel electroencephalography system identified the N2 and N2-r motion-onset visual evoked potentials in the motion-sensitive midtemporal visual area. Visual evoked potential amplitudes were highly correlated between conditions (N2 r = .72, N2-r r = .74) although significantly lower in the sport-specific task than in the lab-based task (N2 p < .001, N2-r p < .001). The results suggest that sport-specific visual stimulation is feasible to evoke visual potentials. This emphasizes the investigation of visual processes under more ecologically valid conditions in sport and exercise science.

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Alejandra Jáuregui, Selene Pacheco-Miranda, Armando García-Olvera and Emanuel Orozco-Núñez

Background: Quality physical education (QPE) is part of a whole-of-school approach for school-based physical activity promotion. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization QPE Policy Project supported 4 countries to develop QPE policies. The authors summarize the process, progress, successes, setbacks, and lessons learned during the implementation of the project in Mexico. Methods: The project was developed from August 2016 to April 2018 following the methodology proposed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Adaptations to the methodology were made to meet local needs. Results and Discussion: The project successfully implemented the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization methodology and prepared a national strategy for the provision of QPE in Mexico. The national strategy progressed despite the change in presidential administration. Successes included the use of a QPE policy evaluation framework, the inclusion of stakeholders representing extreme PE views and from all regions in the country, and the presence of international agencies in the national team. Setbacks included difficulties in engaging key organizations and a weak communication campaign. Lessons learned are discussed. Conclusions: The QPE project in Mexico served as a pilot project to test the feasibility of implementing a QPE policy revision process. The experience and lessons learned in Mexico can be drawn on to inform the work of other stakeholders interested in advocating for a national QPE policy.

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Christopher C. Moore, Aston K. McCullough, Elroy J. Aguiar, Scott W. Ducharme and Catrine Tudor-Locke

Background: The authors conducted a scoping review as a first step toward establishing harmonized (ie, consistent and compatible), empirically based best practices for validating step-counting wearable technologies. Purpose: To catalog studies validating step-counting wearable technologies during treadmill ambulation. Methods: The authors searched PubMed and SPORTDiscus in August 2019 to identify treadmill-based validation studies that employed the criterion of directly observed (including video recorded) steps and cataloged study sample characteristics, protocol details, and analytical procedures. Where reported, speed- and wear location–specific mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values were tabulated. Weighted median MAPE values were calculated by wear location and a 0.2-m/s speed increment. Results: Seventy-seven eligible studies were identified: most had samples averaging 54% (SD = 5%) female and 27 (5) years of age, treadmill protocols consisting of 3 to 5 bouts at speeds of 0.8 (0.1) to 1.6 (0.2) m/s, and reported measures of bias. Eleven studies provided MAPE values at treadmill speeds of 1.1 to 1.8 m/s; their weighted median MAPE values were 7% to 11% for wrist-worn, 1% to 4% for waist-worn, and ≤1% for thigh-worn devices. Conclusions: Despite divergent study methodologies, the authors identified common practices and summarized MAPE values representing device step-count accuracy during treadmill walking. These initial empirical findings should be further refined to ultimately establish harmonized best practices for validating wearable technologies.

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Thomas D. Raedeke, Victoria Blom and Göran Kenttä

This study evaluated the relationship of perfectionism and self-perceptions with burnout and life satisfaction in aesthetic performers (N = 254) recruited in Sweden. Cluster analysis revealed four groups: perfectionistic with maladaptive self-perceptions, perfectionistic (parent-driven) with maladaptive self-perceptions, achievement-oriented with adaptive self-perceptions, and nonperfectionistic with adaptive self-perceptions. Performers in both maladaptive clusters reported characteristics suggesting they were perfectionistic compared to their peers. They also reported relatively high contingent self-worth and low basic self-esteem. In contrast, those in the nonperfectionistic with adaptive self-perceptions cluster scored relatively low on perfectionism and reported relatively high basic self-esteem and low contingent self-worth. The performers in the achievement-oriented with adaptive self-perceptions cluster reported average scores across most variables, moderately high personal standards, and higher basic self-esteem compared with contingent self-worth. Overall, performers in both maladaptive clusters reported the highest burnout and lowest life satisfaction. Study findings underscore the importance of perfectionism and self-perceptions when considering burnout and life satisfaction.

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Ashley A. Herda, Brianna D. McKay, Trent J. Herda, Pablo B. Costa, Jeffrey R. Stout and Joel T. Cramer

The purpose of this trial was to examine the effects of self-selected exercise intensities plus either whey protein or placebo supplementation on vital signs, body composition, bone mineral density, muscle strength, and mobility in older adults. A total of 101 participants aged 55 years and older (males [n = 34] and females [n = 67]) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of self-selected, free-weight resistance exercise plus 30 min of self-paced walking three times per week. The participants were randomized into two groups: whey protein (n = 46) or placebo (n = 55). Three-way mixed factorial analyses of variance were used to test for mean differences for each variable. The 12 weeks of self-selected, self-paced exercise intensities improved resting heart rate, fat-free mass, percent body fat, handgrip strength, bench press strength, leg press strength, and all mobility measurements (p < .05) in males and females despite supplementation status. This suggests that additional protein in well-fed healthy older adults does not enhance the benefit of exercise.

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Chiharu Iwasaka, Tsubasa Mitsutake and Etsuo Horikawa

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between leg skeletal muscle mass asymmetry and usual gait speed in older adults. Methods: The subjects were 139 community-dwelling older adults. The asymmetry index was calculated using the leg skeletal muscle mass index (LSMI) values of both legs. The subjects were divided into “large” and “small” asymmetry groups based on the asymmetry index. The relationship between asymmetry and gait speed was analyzed using a linear regression model. The appendicular skeletal muscle mass index and LSMI were included as adjustment variables in the analysis. Results: The asymmetry index and having a “large” asymmetry were independently related to gait speed, even after adjusting for covariates such as appendicular skeletal muscle mass index and LSMI. Discussion: Leg skeletal muscle mass asymmetry was related to gait speed independently of the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index and LSMI values. A skeletal muscle mass evaluation among older adults should include an assessment of the total skeletal muscle mass and its asymmetry.

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Jason Flindall, Scott Sinnett and Alan Kingstone

The length of the last visual fixation before the critical final phase of a movement—the quiet eye (QE) fixation—is positively correlated with expertise and success. The present study tested the potential for intraskill transfer of QE durations in order to determine whether it is intrinsically linked to expertise development or is a separable skill that may be employed to improve performance under novel circumstances. The authors tracked highly skilled dart throwers’ gazes while they executed familiar (highly practiced) and familiar yet novel (distance/effector-modified) sport-specific actions. QE duration was significantly reduced when performing in unfamiliar conditions, suggesting that QE does not transfer to atypical conditions and may therefore be a result of—rather than a contributor to—expertise development. These results imply that intraskill transfer of QE is limited and, consistent with the inhibition hypothesis of QE development, argue against the value of teaching QE as an independent means of improving performance.

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Erja Portegijs, Erik J. Timmermans, Maria V. Castell, Elaine M. Dennison, Florian Herbolsheimer, Federica Limongi, Suzan van der Pas, Laura A. Schaap, Natasja van Schoor and Dorly J.H. Deeg

Objectives: To study associations between perceived neighborhood resources and time spent by older adults in active travel. Methods: Respondents in six European countries, aged 65–85 years, reported on the perceived presence of neighborhood resources (parks, places to sit, public transportation, and facilities) with response options “a lot,” “some,” and “not at all.” Daily active travel time (total minutes of transport-related walking and cycling) was self-reported at the baseline (n = 2,695) and 12–18 months later (n = 2,189). Results: Reporting a lot of any of the separate resources (range B’s = 0.19–0.29) and some or a lot for all four resources (B = 0.22, 95% confidence interval [0.09, 0.35]) was associated with longer active travel time than reporting none or fewer resources. Associations remained over the follow-up, but the changes in travel time were similar, regardless of the neighborhood resources. Discussion: Perceiving multiple neighborhood resources may support older adults’ active travel. Potential interventions, for example, the provision of new resources or increasing awareness of existing resources, require further study.

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K. Dillon and Harry Prapavessis

Older adults in assisted living spend most of their day in sedentary behaviors, which may be detrimental to cognitive function. The primary purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of using a prompting device to reduce sitting time with light walking among older adults with mild to moderate cognitive impairment residing in an assisted living setting. A secondary purpose was to examine the effectiveness of the intervention on the residents’ cognitive function, physical function, and quality of life. The participants (n = 25, mean age = 86.7 [5.3] years) were assigned in clusters into a two-arm 10-week single-site pilot randomized controlled trial. The intervention group was prompted with a watch to interrupt sedentary behaviors and partake in 10 min of light physical activity (i.e., walking) three times a day after a meal. The assessments included hip-worn accelerometers (Actical) and diaries, the Alzheimer’s disease assessment scale—cognitive, Timed Up and Go, and the short-form 36 health survey. Adherence was high, as there were no dropouts, and over 70% of the participants completed over 80% of the prescribed physical activity bouts. Significant effects favoring the intervention were shown for all outcomes.

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Britton W. Brewer, Christine M. Caldwell, Albert J. Petitpas, Judy L. Van Raalte, Miquel Pans and Allen E. Cornelius

A sport-specific, self-report measure of identity foreclosure was developed through a systematic process that included item pool generation, expert review, administration of items to a development sample of intercollegiate student athletes (N = 326), item evaluation, and administration of scales to validation samples of intercollegiate student athletes (N = 322, N = 54, and N = 64, respectively). The process yielded two four-item scales reflecting commitment to the occupational identity of athlete and one 4-item scale reflecting active exploration of roles other than that of athlete that (a) are internally consistent and temporally stable, (b) demonstrate preliminary factorial and convergent validity, and (c) can be used to create indices of identity foreclosure tailored to the sport context. The resulting Sport-Specific Measure of Identity Foreclosure has potential utility as an assessment tool for research and practice with athletes.