This study evaluated the performance of 6 commercially available hard hat designs—differentiated by shell design, number of suspension points, and suspension tightening system—in regard to their ability to attenuate accelerations during vertical impacts to the head. Tests were conducted with impactor materials of steel, wood, and lead shot (resembling commonly seen materials in a construction site), weighing 1.8 and 3.6 kg and dropped from 1.83 m onto a Hybrid III head/neck assembly. All hard hats appreciably reduced head acceleration to the unprotected condition. However, neither the addition of extra suspension points nor variations in suspension tightening mechanism appreciably influenced performance. Therefore, these results indicate that additional features available in current hard hat designs do not improve protective capacity as related to head acceleration metrics.
Arthur Alves Dos Santos, James Sorce, Alexandra Schonning, and Grant Bevill
Matías Henríquez, Aitor Iturricastillo, Arturo González-Olguín, Felipe Herrera, Sonny Riquelme, and Raul Reina
This study compared physical performance in a group of international cerebral palsy football players during two formats of small-sided games (SSGs) and performance in a simulated game (SG) according to players’ sport classes (FT1, FT2, and FT3). Internal load (heart rate and rating of perceived exertion) and external load (total distance, distance covered at different velocities, maximum speed reached, acceleration, and deceleration) were obtained with global positioning system devices during two formats of SSGs (2-a-side/SSG2 and 4-a-side/SSG4) and an SG (7-a-side). SSG2 demands faster actions compared with SSG4/SG, and significant differences and large effect sizes were found in the distance covered in Speed Zones 5 (16.0−17.9 km/hr) and 6 (>18.0 km/hr; p < .05;
Laura Prieto, Michael L. Norris, and Luis Columna
The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of people with Parkinson’s (PwP) and their care partners (CPs) who participated in a Parkinson’s-focused community dance class in a northeastern state of the United States. In this qualitative inquiry, participants included five PwP and their respective CPs (n = 5). Three major, recurrent, and interrelated themes emerged from the data. These themes were (a) keep moving, (b) compassion in action, and (c) acceptance and freedom in dance. These themes captured personal and environmental factors that influenced the participation of PwP and their CPs in a dance class and how they perceived that dance influenced their quality of life. The themes described the obstacles, motives, and perceived outcomes of participating in dance. The findings emphasize the need for future dance interventions and programs that consider the CPs’ role in promoting participation for PwP in dance classes.
Luca Cavaggioni, Athos Trecroci, Damiano Formenti, Luke Hogarth, Massimiliano Tosin, and Giampietro Alberti
The purpose of this study was to monitor the changes in breathing pattern, trunk muscle stabilization, and upper-body muscular power in Paralympic swimmers throughout a competitive season over three time points: October (T1), March (T2), and August (T3). Six top-level Paralympic swimmers voluntarily participated in this study. The Friedman test, the Bonferroni–Dunn multiple comparison post hoc analysis, and Kendall’s W concordance coefficient for the measure of effect were used. A significant difference was found in the breathing pattern, trunk stability, and upper-body power variables from the T1 to T3 season (p < .05). However, no significant changes were found in the T2 season. A long-term assessment of these fitness parameters may be of practical importance for better tailoring the training programs of top-level Paralympic swimmers.
Rihab Borji, Firas Zghal, Nidhal Zarrouk, Sonia Sahli, and Haithem Rebai
The authors explored neuromuscular fatigue in athletes with intellectual disability (AID) compared with sedentary individuals with intellectual disability (SID) and individuals with typical development. Force, voluntary activation level, potentiated resting twitch, and electromyography signals were assessed during isometric maximal voluntary contractions performed before and immediately after an isometric submaximal exhaustive contraction (15% isometric maximal voluntary contractions) and during recovery period. AID presented shorter time to task failure than SID (p < .05). The three groups presented similar isometric maximal voluntary contraction decline and recovery kinetic. Both groups with intellectual disability presented higher voluntary activation level and root mean square normalized to peak-to-peak M-wave amplitude declines (p < .05) compared with individuals with typical development. These declines were more pronounced in SID (p < .05) than in AID. The AID recovered their initial voluntary activation level later than controls, whereas SID did not. SID presented lower potentiated resting twitch decline compared with AID and controls with faster recovery (p < .05). AID presented attenuated central fatigue and accentuated peripheral fatigue compared with their sedentary counterparts, suggesting a neuromuscular profile close to that of individuals with typical development.
Bruno Luiz Souza Bedo, Guilherme Manna Cesar, Renato Moraes, Fábio Pamplona Mariano, Luiz Henrique Palucci Vieira, Vitor Luiz Andrade, and Paulo Roberto Pereira Santiago
Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament ruptures generally occur during unanticipated sidestep cutting maneuvers when athletes have their visual attention focused on the opponent. The authors investigated the influence of uncertainty related to the side to perform the sidestep cutting maneuver on knee kinematics of female handball athletes. A total of 31 female handball athletes performed the sidestep cutting maneuver during anticipated and uncertain conditions. During the uncertain condition, visual cues indicated the direction of the reactive sidestep cutting maneuver. Between-condition differences were compared using the Student t test for paired samples calculated with statistical parametric mapping. Lower knee flexion angle was detected during the uncertain condition compared with the anticipated condition for the nondominant limb (0%–8% of the sidestep cycle). Knee abduction was larger during the uncertain condition for both the dominant (15%–41% of the sidestep cycle) and nondominant (0%–18% of the sidestep cycle) limbs compared with the anticipated condition. The nondominant leg showed higher knee abduction (36%–68% of the sidestep cycle) during the uncertain condition compared with the anticipated condition. The athletes’ approach velocity was slower during the uncertain condition. The uncertain condition impacted knee kinematics and potentially positioned the joint at greater risk of injury by decreasing the flexion angle in the nondominant leg and increasing the joint valgus bilaterally.
Karin Weman Josefsson
Sweden has adopted a somewhat different approach to handle the corona pandemic, which has been widely debated both on national and international levels. The Swedish model involves more individual responsibility and reliance on voluntary civic liability than law enforcement, while common measures in other countries are based on more controlling strategies, such as restrictive lockdowns, quarantines, closed borders, and mandatory behavior constraints. This commentary aims to give a brief overview of the foundations of the Swedish model as well as a discussion on how and why it has been adopted in the Swedish society based on Swedish legislations, culture, and traditions. Finally, perspectives on how the Swedish model could be connected to the tenets of self-determination theory will be discussed.
Nathan Morelli, Nicholas R. Heebner, Courtney J. DeFeo, and Matthew C. Hoch
Objective: To determine the influence of a cognitive dual task on postural sway and balance errors during the Concussion Balance Test (COBALT). Methods: Twenty healthy adults (12 females, eight males; aged 21.95 ± 3.77 years; height = 169.95 ± 9.95 cm; weight = 69.58 ± 15.03 kg) partook in this study and completed single- and dual-task versions of a reduced COBALT. Results: Sway velocity decreased during dual-task head rotations on foam condition (p = .021, ES = −0.57). A greater number of movement errors occurred during dual-task head rotations on firm surface (p = .005, ES = 0.71), visual field flow on firm surface (p = .008, ES = 0.68), and head rotations on foam surface (p < .001, ES = 1.61) compared with single-task conditions. Cognitive performance was preserved throughout different sensory conditions of the COBALT (p = .985). Discussion: Cognitive dual tasks influenced postural control and destabilized movements during conditions requiring advanced sensory integration and reweighting demands. Dual-task versions of the COBALT should be explored as a clinical tool to identify residual deficits past the acute stages of concussion recovery.