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Jooyoun Kim and Eunjung Kim

Following the Second World War, martial arts in East Asia underwent various changes. This study focuses on the change from traditional martial arts to sports-oriented martial arts. It examines the emergence of karate as a sport during the Allied occupation of Japan. Kanbukan, founded in Japan by the Korean Kwaebyeong Yoon, was promoted as a sport version of karate that differed from traditional forms. Consequently, following the end of the war, Kanbukan introduced protective gear, held the first competition, created the first rules of the competition, published the first magazine, and formed the first international organization. “Sport Karate” is a detailed symbolic example of acculturation to a Western-centered culture in East Asian sports history. It is necessary to recall the legacy of Kanbukan and to reflect on the historical significance of Sport Karate, which facilitated the transition of traditional martial arts to sports.

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Doris Bazzini, Chris Dickinson, Alison N. Cooke, Amanda Pepper, Jessica Udry, and Sidney Murray

Media images depicting idealized female physiques have been shown to heighten body dissatisfaction and body objectification. A potentially buffering factor in media exposure are depictions of female athletes performing their sports, which are associated with reduced objectification. These findings have not been extended to social physique anxiety (SPA), a heightened concern that one’s body does not meet comparative standards of physicality and beauty. Sixty-nine college-aged women reported levels of SPA following exposure to images of the same female professional athletes performing their sport, or in a sexualized pose. Visual attention to body parts on the images was measured via an eye tracker to explore whether fixations corresponded with the experience of SPA. Performance images lowered feelings of SPA relative to sexual images, and induced a lesser percentage of time visually fixating on the head/face, and more time fixating on arms and legs, relative to sexual images of the athletes. No differences emerged for fixations on the torso across conditions. Exploratory mediation models were also conducted to explore the influence of visual attention on the relationship between image type and SPA. These findings are considered in light of the nature of objectifying images of women and the importance of promoting empowering images to audiences.

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John N. Singer, Kwame J.A. Agyemang, Chen Chen, Nefertiti A. Walker, and E. Nicole Melton

This article is written in response to the collective “reckoning” with anti-Black violence in 2020. We share our perspective in solidarity with the long traditions, and contemporary, everyday actions of survival and resistance from millions of unnamed members of Black, Indigenous, and other racialized communities across the world. This article calls in the field of sport management, while calling attention to ways anti-Blackness has permeated the academy. Through observations, reflections, and interrogation of literature in the field, we illustrate the invisibility/marginality/erasure of Blackness in this body of knowledge and discuss missed opportunities for sport management. With the hope that the field will transform into a more inclusive, equitable, and just intellectual space, representative of Black, Indigenous, and other racialized voices, perspectives, experiences, and cultures, and accountable to rectifying the injustices inflicted upon Black and other racialized bodies, we offer calls to action for everyone in the field to consider.

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Melody Alanis, George B. Cunningham, and Ashley Desimone

The purpose of this study was to conduct a scoping review of Latinas in sport. Such analyses are particularly useful when a body of research has not been thoroughly reviewed. The authors searched four databases (Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and Academic Source Complete) for studies focusing on Latinas in sport and that were U.S.-based studies, published from 1980 to 2020, in academic journals, in English, and with full-text available. The search yielded 85 articles. Further results indicated (a) only 14 studies had a specific focus on Latinas in sport; (b) most researchers (74.1%) adopted a quantitative approach; and (c) over half of the scholars did not explicitly state the theoretical lens from which they were drawing, and the researchers who did use theory to frame their work most commonly drew from psychological or sociological theories. The authors discuss the contributions of the research, offer implications, note limitations, and advance areas for future research.

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Moss E. Norman, LeAnne Petherick, and Edward (Sonny) Albert

We situate the race-based division of Manitoba’s Keystone Junior Hockey League as a case study to reveal the ongoing processes of settler colonialism. We argue that this split is an example of “White settler possessive logics,” whereby settler belonging is naturalized through reiterative embodied acts of occupation. That this split happened in hockey, which is colloquially referred to as “Canada’s game,” is perhaps unsurprising given that hockey is a significant cultural site where Canadian nationhood is produced. However, we also contend that settler entitlement and belonging are never fully secure, but rather always in the process of (un)becoming. Settler belonging is thus threatened by Indigenous embodied sovereignties, which we argue can be found in the game of hockey generally, and in the Keystone Junior Hockey League specifically.

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Katherine Sveinson, Elizabeth Taylor, Ajhanai C.I. Keaton, Laura Burton, Ann Pegoraro, and Kim Toffoletti

While the progress of women in the sport industry has become more visible, there is still significant gender inequity. Extending the sport organizational literature, we argue that the unpaid, invisible, and emotional labor of women, especially those holding diverse social identities, is significantly contributing to gender inequity at the organizational level. In broader sport research, the micro, everyday experiences of women stakeholders and the connection to macro societal structures and ideologies have provided foundational insight to build upon. However, there is a need for research to focus on the meso-level organizational practices, policies, designs, structures, and culture to create real change. Therefore, we present a conceptual paper, focused on a meso-level analysis and the invisible labors that women stakeholders engage in, to extend existing work and provide a pathway for further investigation into gender inequity in sport.

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Rodrigo Villaseca-Vicuña, Jorge Pérez-Contreras, Pablo Merino-Muñoz, Esteban Aedo-Muñoz, José A. González Jurado, and Santiago Zabaloy

The COVID-19 pandemic led to an unusual situation in sports. Players were forced to stay at home for an undefined period of time and not allowed to use any training facilities or even exercise outdoors. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on physical performance and body composition in elite female football players. During the confinement period, 19 players (n = 19, M = 27 years; SD = 4.19) volunteered to participate in the present study. Participants were confined during 5 months and performed six remotely guided sessions a week, designed and structured by a certified fitness coach. Pre- and postconfinement period, players were tested for body composition, strength in the squat exercise, vertical jump, 30-m sprint, kicking velocity, and intermittent endurance capacity (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1). Fat mass and muscle mass remained unaffected after the confinement period, while only body mass showed a significant increase between periods (1.19%; p = .014). In addition, physical performance measures postconfinement showed positive changes in kicking (p < .001; effect size = 1.02), in contrast to a reduction in mean propulsive velocity against 40-kg load and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 total distance covered (p: .041 and .010, respectively). Present findings indicate that the implementation of home-based training programs during confinement periods could be sufficient stimulus to maintain body composition and physical performance (i.e., strength, vertical jump, and sprint), although they might not be sufficient to maintain intermittent endurance capacity in elite female football players.