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Editors’ Note

Pamela Hodges Kulinna and Ben Dyson

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Editors’ Note

Pamela Hodges Kulinna and Ben Dyson

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Editors’ Notes

Ben Dyson and Pamela Hodges Kulinna

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Editor’s Notes

Ben Dyson and Pamela Hodges Kulinna

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Editorial

Ben Dyson and Pamela Hodges Kulinna

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Introduction to the Special Issue: Models Based Practice in Physical Education

Ben Dyson, Pamela Kulinna, and Mike Metzler

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The Co-Construction of Cooperative Learning in Physical Education With Elementary Classroom Teachers

Ben P. Dyson, Rachel Colby, and Mark Barratt

The purpose of this study was to investigate generalist classroom elementary teachers’ implementation of the Cooperative Learning (CL) pedagogical model into their physical education classes. The study used multiple sources of data drawing on qualitative data collection and data analysis research traditions (Miles, Huberman, & Saldana, 2014). Data were gathered from teacher post-lesson reflections, researcher journals, field notes, emails, and documents (such as lesson plans, school physical education programs, meeting transcripts), and on-going interviews with 12 teachers from four schools. The research team drew four categories from the data: Teachers’ lack of physical education preparation, Social skills needed for Cooperative Learning, Teachers’ understanding of Cooperative Learning, and Changing pedagogy to a student focus. An important feature in this study was the on-going, embedded support teachers received from a critical friend and their collaboration in the school’s CL Professional Learning Group. The findings suggest that with this type of support, generalist classroom teachers can learn to teach CL in their physical education classes. We found that teacher professional learning should be hands-on, take place in a social context, and be embedded in teachers’ own school context.

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Stepping Back, Stepping Up, and Stepping Forward: Exploring One Teacher’s Evolving Approach to Teaching Social and Emotional Learning in High School Physical Education

Donal Howley, Ben Dyson, and Seunghyun Baek

Purpose: Utilizing social constructivist learning theory and a conceptual framework for Social and Emotional Learning (SEL), this self-study explores how I as a teacher-researcher intentionally evolved my approach to teaching SEL in a high school Physical Education setting. Method: Data were collected over twenty 75-min lessons over 15 weeks. One critical friend interview, 20 postteaching reflections, 18 observations, and 22 journal entries were conducted. A deductive and inductive approach utilizing the Miles, Huberman, and Saldana Framework for Qualitative Data Analysis was implemented. Results: Findings demonstrate how aligning my teaching with a contemporary framework led to a more explicit and intentional focus on SEL within my already utilized repertoire of pedagogies. Discussion/Conclusion: Incorporating self-study structure as a teacher-researcher led me to understand how I evolved and felt better equipped to teach for targeted SEL competencies and skills to further compliment the teaching of core Physical Education content.

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Model Fidelity and Students’ Responses to an Authenticated Unit of Cooperative Learning

Ashley Casey, Victoria A. Goodyear, and Ben P. Dyson

A wealth of school-based interventions report on students’ positive responses to the use of models-based practice in physical education. However, research that examines the effectiveness of models-based practice rarely reports on the fidelity of implementation i.e., when all of the characteristics of a model are implemented. The purpose of this study was to explore model fidelity in the use of the Cooperative Learning model. Action research and systematic observation (using the Cooperative Learning Validation Tool which acknowledged the observation of key characteristics of the model) were used to confirm model fidelity. Consequently, the themes which emerged from the data analysis of could be directly linked to the authentic use of Cooperative Learning context. The paper concludes by arguing that when reporting on findings from empirical research on the use of Cooperative Learning we need to adopt a more robust approach in determining—through rigor and quality of research—the authenticity of implementation.

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The Ecology of Cooperative Learning in Elementary Physical Education Classes

Ben P. Dyson, Nicole Rhodes Linehan, and Peter A. Hastie

The purpose of this study was to describe and interpret the instructional ecology of Cooperative Learning in elementary physical education classes. Data collection included a modified version of the task structure system (Siedentop, 1994), interviews, field notes, and a teacher’s journal. T-tests of the quantitative data revealed that instruction time, management time, transitions, and wait time decreased significantly during the units and refining, extending, and applying tasks increased significantly. Cognitive/social tasks were observed consistently in every lesson and contributed to student learning. Inductive analysis and constant comparison were used to analyze the qualitative data (Patton, 1990). The researchers identified four main categories from this data: organization and management of students, roles, skill development, and strategizing. To promote individual accountability the teacher used task sheets, assigned Cooperative Learning roles, kept group sizes small, randomly chose students to demonstrate their competence, and asked students to teach their teammates skills and tactics.