Self-actualization profiles were plotted for 265 college-age able-bodied male athletes and 30 elite cerebral palsied male athletes, M age = 24.9, all of whom were international competitors. These profiles were examined in relation to one another and in relation to two normative groups, one consisting of adults and one consisting of college students. Results indicated that college-age able-bodied male athletes and elite cerebral palsied male athletes have similar self-actualization profiles. Elite cerebral palsied male athletes were found to be significantly less self-actualized than normal adults in the areas of time competence, existentiality, self-acceptance, nature of man, and synergy (Shostrom, 1964). Able-bodied college-age male athletes were generally more self-actualized than members of their age-appropriate reference group (i.e., male college students). Implications for sport psychology and counseling are discussed.
Claudine Sherrill and Wanda Rainbolt
April Tripp and Claudine Sherrill
This paper emphasizes that attitude research in adapted physical education must become increasingly theory oriented. Likewise, teacher training must broaden to include scholarly study in relation to social psychology and attitude theory. To facilitate progress in this direction, nine attitude theories have been abstracted from the literature and reviewed under four general headings: learning-behavior theories, cognitive integration theories, consistency theories, and reasoned action theory. Individual theories presented are (a) contact, (b) mediated generalization, (c) assimilation-contrast or persuasive communication, (d) stigma, (e) interpersonal relations, (f) group dynamics, (g) cognitive dissonance, and (h) reasoned action. Illustrations of how each theory applies to selected studies in adapted physical education research and practice are offered, and a lengthy reference list provides both primary and secondary sources for the further study of attitudes.
Claudine Sherrill and Nancy Megginson
The purpose was to develop and field test a comprehensive needs assessment instrument for use in determining and prioritizing local school district adapted physical education needs. The resulting Survey of Adapted Physical Education Needs (SAPEN) was comprised of 50 items, encompassing five areas: (a) significance of physical education, (b) assessment, placement, and individualized educational programming, (c) instruction and programming, (d) personnel, and (e) other. Items were to be rated on two, 6-point Likert-type scales, relating respectively to the extent to which each adapted physical education condition now exists and should exist in one’s school district. Procedures established by Schipper and Wilson (1975) were followed in determining needs and subsequently designating them as first (most urgent), second, and third priorities to be acted upon by school district personnel. Content validity of SAPEN was established by five nationally known adapted physical education experts. Test-retest and internal reliability coefficients were determined by the Spearman Rank Correlation and Alpha Coefficient techniques respectively. Data analysis and cooperative planning follow-up procedures were field tested in a selected school district with SAPENs returned by 37 administrators, 48 physical educators, 55 special educators, and 12 parents.
Yeshayahu Hutzler and Claudine Sherrill
The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen’s social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative methodology. Data sources were online surveys, APA literature, and expertise of researchers. Findings, with the identification of further considerations, were provided for each APA component to stimulate reflection and further inquiry among international professionals with diverse backgrounds.
Ellen M. Kowalski and Claudine Sherrill
This study examined the effects of model type and verbal rehearsal strategy in relation to motor sequencing of boys with learning disabilities (LD). Eighty boys, ages 7 and 8 years, were exposed to four experimental conditions in a 2 × 2 (Model × Verbal Rehearsal Strategy) design. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (a) visual-silent model/verbal rehearsal, (b) visual-verbal model/verbal rehearsal, (c) visual-silent model/ no verbal rehearsal, and (d) visual-verbal model/ no verbal rehearsal. The four groups were statistically equal on measures of age, IQ, behavior, learner modality preference, and motor proficiency. Data collected for experimental analysis were generated by the Motor Sequencing Test which measured the ability to model seven locomotor tasks in the correct order. Results revealed that the boys with LD performed significantly better on the motor sequencing test when trained in verbal rehearsal strategy. However, results indicated no significant difference in motor sequencing under visual-silent and visual-verbal model conditions.
Claudine Sherrill and John O’Connor
Claudine Sherrill and Jean L. Pyfer
Many learning disabled students demonstrate psychological/behavioral and perceptual motor characteristics that affect physical education placement and programming. Among the characteristics exhibited by these students are hyperactivity, disorders of attention, impulsivity, poor self-concept, social imperception, delay in social play development, and deficiencies in body equilibrium, visual motor control, bilateral coordination, repetitive finger movements, and fine motor coordination. Activities found to benefit learning disabled students are jogging, relaxation, highly structured teacher-directed routines, and noncompetitive games, all of which must be carefully sequenced. Testing must be done to determine the type and extent of the learning disabled students’ problems, and activities must be selected on the basis of the results of such tests.
Pilvikki Heikinaro-Johansson and Claudine Sherrill
The purpose was to develop a model to guide assessment for physical education planning for integration and inclusion at the school district level. A secondary goal was to determine if teachers’ gender, age, education, and experience of teaching children with special needs are associated with beliefs about barriers to integration. To test the model, data were collected from physical education specialists and classroom teachers in central Finland. The survey instruments were three scales: (a) Awareness of Individual Differences Survey, (b) Survey of Adapted Physical Education Needs–Finnish modification (SAPEN-F), and (c) Teacher Beliefs About Physical Education Integration Scale. Results indicated that Finnish teachers know they have students with special needs. PE specialists and classroom teachers share many common beliefs about priority needs. Teachers believe that the most important barrier that hinders physical education integration is attitude. The model described herein worked in Finland and is ready for further testing by other countries.
Abu B. Yilla and Claudine Sherrill
The purpose was to develop a valid and reliable battery of quad rugby skill tests. Participants were 65 adult, male, quad rugby athletes. Content validity was established in two modified Delphi rounds by a panel of international experts. For concurrent validity, Spearman rho correlations between coaches’ rankings of players’ skills and scores ranged from .63 to .98 for the total battery. For construct validity, principal factor analysis with oblique rotation revealed two factors. Intraclass reliability coefficients ranged from .94 to .99. The battery includes five tests: maneuverability with the ball, pass for accuracy, picking, sprinting, and pass for distance.
David L. Porretta and Claudine Sherrill
This paper reports both the contents and key developmental activities of Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly over its second decade of publication (1994-2003). The first section describes the contents of Volumes 11-20 relative to the number of articles by journal section, science area, disability category, and country. These data are compared to selected data reported for the journal’s first decade (1984-1993) of publication by Reid and Broadhead (1995). The second section describes developmental activities pertaining to enhancing the journal’s international quality through selected writings, impact factor recognition, editorial board membership, and guest reviewer database development.