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Performance Enhancement Groups for Injured Athletes

Damien Clement, Vanessa R. Shannon, and Ian J. Connole

Edited by Adam Naylor

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Performance Enhancement Groups for Injured Athletes, Part 2: Implementation and Facilitation

Damien Clement, Vanessa R. Shannon, and Ian J. Connole

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Performance Enhancement Groups for Injured Athletes, Part 1: Preparation and Development

Damien Clement, Vanessa R. Shannon, and Ian J. Connole

Edited by Jatin P. Ambegaonkar

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Athletes’ Expectations About Sport-Injury Rehabilitation: A Cross-Cultural Study

Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Damien Clement, Jennifer Jordan Hamson-Utley, Cindra Kamphoff, Rebecca Zakrajsek, Sae-Mi Lee, Brian Hemmings, Taru Lintunen, and Scott B. Martin

Context:

Athletes enter injury rehabilitation with certain expectations about the recovery process, outcomes, and the professional providing treatment. Their expectations influence the effectiveness of the assistance received and affect the overall rehabilitation process. Expectations may vary depending on numerous factors such as sport experience, gender, sport type, and cultural background. Unfortunately, limited information is available on athletes’ expectations about sport-injury rehabilitation.

Objective:

To examine possible differences in athletes’ expectations about sport-injury rehabilitation based on their country of residence and type of sport (contact vs noncontact).

Design:

Cross-sectional.

Setting:

Recreational, college, and professional athletes from the US, UK, and Finland were surveyed.

Participants:

Of the 1209 athletes ranging from 12 to 80 y of age (mean 23.46 ± 7.91), 529 US [80%], 253 UK [86%], and 199 Finnish [82%] athletes provided details of their geographical location and were included in the final analyses.

Main Outcome Measures:

The Expectations About Athletic Training (EAAT) questionnaire was used to determine athletes’ expectations about personal commitment, facilitative conditions, and the expertise of the sports-medicine professional (SMP).

Results:

A 3 × 2 MANCOVA revealed significant main effects for country (P = .0001, ηp 2 = .055) and sport type (P = .0001, ηp 2 = .023). Specifically, US athletes were found to have higher expectations of personal commitment and facilitative conditions than their UK and Finnish counterparts. Athletes participating in contact sports had higher expectations of facilitative conditions and the expertise of the SMP than did athletes participating in noncontact sports.

Conclusions:

SMPs, especially those in the US, should consider the sport and environment when providing services. In addition, SMPs need to highlight and demonstrate their expertise during the rehabilitation process, especially for those who compete in contact sports.

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Athletes’ Use of Mental Skills During Sport Injury Rehabilitation

Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Damien Clement, Jennifer J. Hamson-Utley, Rebecca A. Zakrajsek, Sae-Mi Lee, Cindra Kamphoff, Taru Lintunen, Brian Hemmings, and Scott B. Martin

Context:

Existing theoretical frameworks and empirical research support the applicability and usefulness of integrating mental skills throughout sport injury rehabilitation.

Objective:

To determine what, if any, mental skills athletes use during injury rehabilitation, and by who these skills were taught. Cross-cultural differences were also examined.

Design:

Cross-sectional design.

Setting:

College athletes from 5 universities in the United States and a mixture of collegiate, professional, and recreational club athletes from the United Kingdom and Finland were recruited for this study.

Participants:

A total of 1283 athletes from the United States, United Kingdom, and Finland, who participated in diverse sports at varying competitive levels took part in this study.

Main Outcome Measures:

As part of a larger study on athletes’ expectations of injury rehabilitation, participants were asked a series of open-ended and closed-ended questions concerning their use of mental skills during injury rehabilitation.

Results:

Over half (64.0%) of the sample reported previous experience with athletic training, while 27.0% indicated that they used mental skills during injury rehabilitation. The top 3 mental skills reported were goal setting, positive self-talk/positive thoughts, and imagery. Of those athletes that used mental skills, 71.6% indicated that they felt mental skills helped them to rehabilitate faster. A greater proportion of athletes from the United States (33.4%) reported that they used mental skills during rehabilitation compared with athletes from the United Kingdom (23.4%) and Finland (20.3%). A small portion (27.6%) of the participants indicated that their sports medicine professional had taught them how to use mental skills; only 3% were taught mental skills by a sport psychologist.

Conclusions:

The low number of athletes who reported using mental skills during rehabilitation is discouraging, but not surprising given research findings that mental skills are underutilized by injured athletes in the 3 countries examined. More effort should be focused on educating and training athletes, coaches, and sports medicine professionals on the effectiveness of mental training in the injury rehabilitation context.

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College Athletes’ Expectations About Injury Rehabilitation With an Athletic Trainer

Joe Hart, Damien Clement, Jordan Hamson-Utley, Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Cindra Kamphoff, Rebecca A. Zakrajsek, and Scott B. Martin

Context:

Injured athletes begin the rehabilitation process with expectations about the nature of the working relationship with an athletic trainer. These expectations can infuence the effectiveness of the assistance provided.

Objective:

To determine whether male and female athletes differed in terms of expectations about injury rehabilitation services with an athletic trainer.

Design:

A questionnaire was administered to student athletes that assessed expectations about injury rehabilitation. Setting: Five colleges and universities.

Patients or Other Participants:

Questionnaire responses were provided by 679 student athletes (443 males and 236 females).

Main Outcome Measure:

Responses to the Expectations about Athletic Training questionnaire were used to assess factors identifed as Personal Commitment, Facilitative Conditions, Athletic Trainer Expertise, and Realism.

Results:

A statistically signifcant interaction between gender and prior experience was identifed. Male athletes with no prior experience had lower expectations for a facilitative environment. Female athletes with prior experience were less likely to have realistic expectations.

Conclusions:

Gender and prior experience infuence athletes’ expectations of injury rehabilitation with an athletic trainer.