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The Effects of a Body-Focused Physical and Health Education Module on Self-Objectification and Social Physique Anxiety in Irish Girls

Jacinta O’Brien, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis, and David Kirk

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week body-focused physical and health education module on self-objectification and social physique anxiety (SPA) in a sample of 85 Irish schoolgirls. Classrooms were randomly assigned to receive the experimental module or the standard curriculum. Participants completed pre- and postassessments of the value they placed on objectifying and nonobjectifying physical attributes, along with a measure of SPA. Girls in the experimental condition increased the value they placed on physical health and strength, decreased the value they placed on sex appeal, and showed no change in SPA. Girls in the control condition decreased the value they placed on body weight and physical fitness and experienced a significant increase in SPA. These results suggest that a body-focused module can decrease self-objectification and prevent developmentally linked increases in SPA.

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The Uses of Printed Curriculum Materials by Teachers During Instruction and the Social Construction of Pedagogic Discourse in Physical Education

Carmen Peiró-Velert, Pere Molina-Alventosa, David Kirk, and José Devís-Devís

This paper examines teachers’ use of printed curriculum materials (PCM) during physical education (PE) instruction in Spanish secondary schools and the role they play in the enacted curriculum and in the construction of pedagogical knowledge. Three hundred and ten participants (mean age: 37.7 ± 8.7) responded to an interview-questionnaire on teachers’ pedagogical roles and tasks linked to PCM in PE. Results indicated that while PCM were used very frequently for registering students’ attendance and recording observational notes from lessons, textbooks were less and infrequently used. Both, ‘materials for data registration’ and ‘student textbook’ showed the highest and lowest level of teachers’ satisfaction, respectively. ‘Student diary’ was the PCM used more by female and less experienced teachers than their counterparts, while textbooks were used more by experienced teachers than those with less years of teaching experience. Over fifty percent of teachers considered PCM to be ‘Quite important’ because they facilitate students to study theoretical knowledge, investigate and be creative. The paper discusses the contribution of teachers’ use of PCM to the enacted curriculum and their participation in the social construction of PE knowledge through Bernstein’s theory of pedagogic device. In particular, it indicates that PE teachers are relatively independent from external agencies in curriculum development and participate in the social construction of pedagogical knowledge. Female and less experienced teachers’ use of PCM facilitated students’ participation in the construction of knowledge, which suggests weaker framing of the teaching-learning process..

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The Relationships Between External and Internal Training Loads in Mixed Martial Arts

Christopher Kirk, Carl Langan-Evans, David R. Clark, and James P. Morton

Purpose: As a multidisciplined combat sport, relationships between external and internal training loads and intensities of mixed martial arts (MMA) have not been described. The aim of this study was to determine the external loads and intensities of MMA training categories and their relationship to internal loads and intensities. Methods: Twenty MMA athletes (age = 23.3 [5.3] y, mass = 72.1 [7.2] kg, stature = 171.5 [8.4] cm) were observed for 2 consecutive weeks. Internal load and intensity (session rating of perceived exertion [sRPE]) were calculated using the Foster RPE for the session overall (sRPE-training load [TL]) and segmented RPE (segRPE-TL) for each training category: warm-up, striking drills, wrestling drills, Brazilian jiujitsu (BJJ) drills, striking sparring, wrestling sparring, BJJ sparring, and MMA sparring. External load and intensity were measured via Catapult OptimEye S5 for the full duration of each session using accumulated Playerload (PLdACC) and PLdACC per minute (PLdACC·min−1). Differences in loads between categories and days were assessed via Bayesian analysis of variance (BF10 ≥ 3). Predictive relationships between internal and external variables were calculated using Bayesian regression. Results: Session overall sRPE-TL = 448.6 (191.1) arbitrary units (AU); PLdACC = 310.6 (112) AU. Category segRPE-TL range = 33.8 (22.6) AU (warm-up) to 122.8 (54.6) AU (BJJ drills). Category PLdACC range = 44 (36.3) AU (warm-up) to 125 (58.8) AU (MMA sparring). Neither sRPE-TL nor PLdACC changed between days. PLdACC was different between categories. Evidence for regressions was strong-decisive except for BJJ drills (BF10 = 7, moderate). R 2 range = .50 to .77, except for warm-up (R 2 = .17), BJJ drills (R 2 = .27), BJJ sparring (R 2 = .49), and session overall (R 2 = .13). Conclusions: While MMA training categories may be differentiated in terms of external load, overall session external load does not change within or between weeks. Resultant regression equations may be used to appropriately plan MMA technical/tactical training loads.

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The Acute Effects of Different Exercise Intensities on Associative Novel Word Learning in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Marie-Pier McSween, Katie L. McMahon, Kylie Maguire, Jeff S. Coombes, Amy D. Rodriguez, Kirk I. Erickson, and David A. Copland

Recent studies show positive effects of acute exercise on language learning in young adults with lower baseline learning abilities; however, this is yet to be investigated in older adults. This study investigated the acute effects of different exercise intensities on new word learning in healthy older adults with lower and higher baseline learning abilities. Sixty older adults (mean age = 66.4 (4.6); 43 females) performed either a single bout of stretching exercise, moderate-intensity continuous exercise, or high-intensity interval exercise followed by a word learning task. In lower baseline learners, between-group differences were observed on immediate new word recall success, with the moderate-intensity continuous exercise group performing better than the stretching group. These findings suggest immediate benefits of moderate-intensity continuous exercise that are limited to word learning performance of older adults with lower baseline learning abilities. Further investigation into underlying mechanisms could lead to a better understanding of individual differences in responding to acute exercise.

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Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of a Multimodal Approach to Increase Physical Activity in Older Adults With Memory Complaints: The Education for Action Study

Danylo F. Cabral, Vinicius S. Santos, Oceano T.T. Pereira, Maria J. Silva, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Tatjana Rundek, David A. Loewenstein, Neva Kirk-Sanchez, Augusto C.A. Oliveira, and Joyce Gomes-Osman

In this randomized controlled pilot trial, the authors explored the feasibility, technology compliance, and preliminary efficacy of the Education for Action (EDU-ACT), a multimodal intervention combining evidence-based strategies of physical activity (PA) education and coaching in PA levels over 4 weeks between EDU-ACT and control groups. The authors also assessed pre–post changes in neurocognitive function, functional mobility and dual-task performance, sleep and quality of life. Thirty-two sedentary older adults with memory complaints (age = 66 ± 5.3) completed the study (EDU-ACT = 18 and control = 14). The EDU-ACT adherence rate was 95%, and compliance of daily PA reporting was, on average, 22.7 days (94.6%). The EDU-ACT group demonstrated a significantly greater number of steps, processing speed, and dual-task performance when compared with controls (p < .05). In this study, a multimodal, evidence-based, low-cost intervention was feasible, well-accepted, with high adherence and compliance rates, and effective at promoting clinically meaningful increases in PA, for at least 1 month postintervention, in older adults with memory complaints.

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The Scientific Foundation for the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2nd Edition

Kenneth E. Powell, Abby C. King, David M. Buchner, Wayne W. Campbell, Loretta DiPietro, Kirk I. Erickson, Charles H. Hillman, John M. Jakicic, Kathleen F. Janz, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, William E. Kraus, Richard F. Macko, David X. Marquez, Anne McTiernan, Russell R. Pate, Linda S. Pescatello, and Melicia C. Whitt-Glover

Background: The 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report provides the evidence base for the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2nd Edition. Methods: The 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee addressed 38 questions and 104 subquestions selected for their public health relevance, potential to inform public policies and programs, maturity of the relevant science, and applicability to the general US population. Rigorous systematic literature searches and literature reviews were performed using standardized methods. Results: Newly described benefits of physical activity include reduced risk of excessive weight gain in children and adults, incidence of 6 types of cancer, and fall-related injuries in older people. Physical activity is associated with enhanced cognitive function and mental health across the life span, plus improved mental health and physical function. There is no threshold that must be exceeded before benefits begin to accrue; the accrual is most rapid for the least active individuals. Sedentary time is directly associated with elevated risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, incident cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and selected cancer sites. A wide range of intervention strategies have demonstrated success in increasing physical activity. Conclusion: The 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report provides compelling new evidence to inform physical activity recommendations, practice, and policy.