Recent attention has focused on examining the process of becoming a teacher. Researchers have begun studying the stages of socialization that influence the beliefs, behaviors, and perspectives of those who choose to teach. The purpose of this article is to explore the earlier stages of professional socialization, focusing on four periods (pretraining, preservice, field experiences, and induction) that have the potential to significantly impact teacher development. The authors maintain that prospective teachers participate in a dialectical process, determining to some degree which beliefs they will acquire and which they will ignore. Specifically, this article supports the notion that a dialectical process exists during all four selected periods of socialization—a contest between societal expectations and the individual inclinations of prospective teachers.
Paul G. Schempp and Kim C. Graber
Kim C. Graber and Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko
The purpose of this article is to provide background information related to the development of the 2014 American Kinesiology Association (AKA) Leadership Workshop titled “The Future of Teaching and Learning in an Online World”. A brief description of online education is provided, along with a synopsis of the advantages and challenges confronting instructors and administrators in institutions of higher education who are increasingly implementing this form of instruction. An overview of the articles included in this special issue is also provided.
Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, and Darla M. Castelli
Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, and Jamie A. O’Connor
In 2004, Congress passed the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act that requires schools to implement a wellness plan. Grounded in Ecological Systems Theory (EST) (Bronfenbrenner, 1977, 1979), the purpose of this study was to explore the impact of the legislation, discover what measures have been taken to enact the legislation, gauge how the legislation has impacted the work environment of physical educators, and better understand EST in relation to the legislation at the level of the microsystem. In total, 51 individuals participated in in-depth interviews that were triangulated and inductively/deductively coded. The results indicate that (a) principals and physical education teachers had limited knowledge of the plan, (b) school nutrition programs profited more than physical education, (c) physical education is becoming less marginalized, (d) physical education teachers missed an opportunity to use the legislation for program improvement, and (e) individuals at different levels of the system need to interact.
Thomas J. Templin, Jason R. Carter, and Kim C. Graber
Laura Treanor, Kim Graber, Lynn Housner, and Robert Wiegand
Middle school students (n = 466) participated in a year-long multi-activity physical education program in which classes were coeducational in the fall semester and same-sex in the spring semester. Following participation, students reflected back across the year and anonymously completed a questionnaire that elicited opinions from students regarding their affinity toward physical education, perceived abilities, and preferences for coeducational and same-sex. The findings indicated that males perceived themselves to have significantly more skill, strength, and endurance than females. Females perceived themselves to be significantly more overweight than males. Males also liked physical education significantly better, while females exhibited a systematic decrease in liking physical education from 6th to 8th grade. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for teaching and teacher education and the need for future research on coeducational and same-sex class structures in physical education.
Phillip Ward, Kim C. Graber, and Hans van der Mars
Peer review is an important mechanism for advancing knowledge in a manner deemed as acceptable by the research community. It can also serve the function of providing guidance to an author(s) to improve the likelihood that manuscripts will be accepted in peer reviewed journals. There is, however, little assistance for new or existing reviewers of journals beyond the guidelines for reviewers that some journals provide. Moreover, reviewers seldom, if ever, receive feedback on their reviews that might help them to provide higher quality reviews in the future. In this paper, we provide specific recommendations for drafting quality and constructive peer reviews of manuscripts. While we point to the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education as an example, our focus is on encouraging quality reviews across all journals in our field. We base our recommendations on empirical reports, recommendations of editors that have been published in the research literature, and our own experiences as reviewers. Examples of recommended and not recommended review elements are also provided.
Thomas J. Templin, Kim C. Graber, and K. Andrew R. Richards
Physical education teacher education is at a “tipping point” in history, where the survivability of the profession in many institutions of higher education may be in question. This monograph reflects an initial attempt to understand recruitment and retention in physical education teacher education programs from the perspective of program coordinators. The purpose of this culminating chapter is to connect key points identified throughout the monograph and critically assess how the results add to the knowledge base in physical education teacher education. The chapter authors present a historical perspective on reduced enrollments and identified strategies for the promotion of student recruitment and retention. It will become evident that if a favorable future for physical education is to become reality, then a vision must be developed and enacted through the concentrated efforts of multiple stakeholders who have the time and commitment necessary to enact positive change at local, state, and national levels.
K. Andrew R. Richards, Kim C. Graber, and Amelia Mays Woods
Catherine Ennis was an educator, researcher, mentor, and innovator in the field of physical education. As mentor for doctoral students and early-career researchers, she advocated the importance of developing a research agenda to guide and connect one’s scholarship. The central feature of a research plan, she argued, was a guiding theoretical framework that helps scholars interpret their findings and make connections to larger bodies of literature. In this article, the authors discuss Ennis’s position that theory should guide and connect research in physical education and provide examples of how she developed complementary research agendas throughout her career that were connected to constructivist and social justice theories. The goal of both these research agendas was to improve the experiences of children and teachers in physical education programs. In concluding, the authors connect Ennis’s use of constructivist and social justice theories to the ethic of care and make recommendations for teacher education programs.
K. Andrew R. Richards, Thomas J. Templin, and Kim Graber
Occupational socialization theory describes the acculturation, professional preparation, and organizational socialization of physical education teachers and addresses factors that contribute to their decisions and behaviors. Utilizing occupational socialization theory as a grounding framework, this paper summarizes research conducted on teacher socialization in physical education and provides recommendations for future research. Each of the three phases of socialization is reviewed as are related constructs. The paper concludes with a discussion of socialization into physical education more generally and addresses the limitations of the current body of literature. Future researchers are encouraged to continue using occupational socialization theory as a framework though which to understand the careers and pedagogical decisions of physical education teachers.