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Impairment of Thermoregulation and Performance via Mild Dehydration in Ice Hockey Goaltenders

Devin G. McCarthy, Kate A. Wickham, Tyler F. Vermeulen, Danielle L. Nyman, Shane Ferth, Jamie M. Pereira, Dennis J. Larson, Jamie F. Burr, and Lawrence L. Spriet

During play, ice hockey goaltenders routinely dehydrate through sweating and lose ≥2% body mass, which may impair thermoregulation and performance. Purpose: This randomized, crossover study examined the effects of mild dehydration on goaltender on-ice thermoregulation, heart rate, fatigue, and performance. Methods: Eleven goaltenders played a 70-minute scrimmage followed by a shootout and drills to analyze reaction time and movements. On ice, they either consumed no fluid (NF) and lost 2.4% (0.3%) body mass or maintained body mass with water (WAT) or a carbohydrate–electrolyte solution (CES). Save percentage, rating of perceived exertion, heart rate, and core temperature were recorded throughout, and a postskate questionnaire assessed perceived fatigue. Results: Relative to NF, intake of both fluids decreased heart rate (interaction: P = .03), core temperature (peak NF = 39.0°C [0.1°C], WAT = 38.6°C [0.1°C], and CES = 38.5°C [0.1°C]; P = .005), and rating of perceived exertion in the scrimmage (post hoc: P < .04), as well as increasing save percentage in the final 10 minutes of scrimmage (NF = 75.8% [1.9%], WAT = 81.7% [2.3%], and CES = 81.3% [2.3%], post hoc: P < .04). In drills, movement speed (post hoc: P < .05) and reaction time (post hoc: P < .04) were slower in the NF versus both fluid conditions. Intake of either fluid similarly reduced postskate questionnaire scores (condition: P < .0001). Only CES significantly reduced rating of perceived exertion in drills (post hoc: P < .05) and increased peak movement power versus NF (post hoc: P = .02). Shootout save percentage was similar between conditions (P = .37). Conclusions: Mild dehydration increased physiological strain and fatigue and decreased ice hockey goaltender performance versus maintaining hydration. Also, maintaining hydration with a CES versus WAT may further reduce perceived fatigue and positively affect movements.

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IOC Consensus Statement: Dietary Supplements and the High-Performance Athlete

Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener, and Lars Engebretsen

Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition program. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including the management of micronutrient deficiencies, supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and provision of direct benefits to performance or indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens. The appropriate use of some supplements can offer benefits to the athlete, but others may be harmful to the athlete’s health, performance, and/or livelihood and reputation if an anti-doping rule violation results. A complete nutritional assessment should be undertaken before decisions regarding supplement use are made. Supplements claiming to directly or indirectly enhance performance are typically the largest group of products marketed to athletes, but only a few (including caffeine, creatine, specific buffering agents and nitrate) have good evidence of benefits. However, responses are affected by the scenario of use and may vary widely between individuals because of factors that include genetics, the microbiome, and habitual diet. Supplements intended to enhance performance should be thoroughly trialed in training or simulated competition before implementation in competition. Inadvertent ingestion of substances prohibited under the anti-doping codes that govern elite sport is a known risk of taking some supplements. Protection of the athlete’s health and awareness of the potential for harm must be paramount, and expert professional opinion and assistance is strongly advised before embarking on supplement use.