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Knowledge, Decision Making, and Performance in Table Tennis by Educable Mentally Handicapped Adolescents

Marcel Bouffard and Albert E. Wall

The effect of knowledge on decision making and performance of educable mentally handicapped (EMH) adolescents was studied in a simulated table tennis situation. In two experiments, knowledge about where the ball would land on the table was manipulated. The position the players selected to return the ball was affected by the knowledge (uncertainty) associated with its future landing location. Depending upon the degree of uncertainty, results indicated the players used (a) a total preparation for one particular event strategy, (b) a partial preparation for one particular event strategy, or (c) a no-preparation for one particular event strategy. Further, knowledge about the ball’s future landing location affected the decision about the type of stroke to use and had a minimal effect on the number of balls hit. Overall, these results demonstrate an intricate relationship between knowledge, decision making, and performance in a simulated racket sport by EMH adolescents.

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Perceived Challenge in Physical Activity by Individuals with Physical Disabilities: The Relationship between Appraisal and Affect

Peter R.E. Crocker and Marcel Bouffard

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between cognitive appraisal and self-reported affect during challenging physical activity by 55 adults (16 females, 39 males) with physical disabilities. Eleven cognitive appraisals related to perceived challenge in physical activity plus positive and negative affect experienced in a recent challenging physical activity were assessed in an interview. The data indicated that perceived challenge was characterized by higher levels of positive affect (M=4.03, SD=.71) compared to negative affect (M=1.54, SD=.61). Correlational analyses revealed that the appraisals of fitness and health, learning skills, demonstrating competence, effort, social approval, task value, and external control were all significantly related to positive affect. A regression analysis for positive affect revealed that a two-term equation using task value and social approval could account for 39% of the variance. No appraisals were significantly related to negative affect.

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Obesity and Movement Competency in Children

J. Dru Marshall and Marcel Bouffard

The primary purpose of this study was to document the actual gross movement competencies, as measured by the Test of Gross Motor Development, in obese versus nonobese children. A 2 Gender (male, female) × 2 Groups (obese, nonobese) × 2 Age Categories (Grade 1, Grade 4) × 2 Programs (quality daily physical education [QDPE], non-QDPE) completely randomized factorial design was used. A significant three-way interaction effect (Group × Age × Program) was found for the Locomotor Skills subscale, such that the difference in movement competency in locomotor skills between obese and nonobese children increased as children got older if they did not receive QPDE. A significant main program effect was also found for the Object Control Skills subscale, with the QDPE children scoring higher than the non-QDPE children. It appears, then, that QDPE programs offer a “protective” effect for the development of locomotor skills in obese children. Implications of these findings are discussed.

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Self-Regulation of Sport Specific and Educational Problem-Solving Tasks by Boys with and Without DCD

Meghann Lloyd, Greg Reid, and Marcel Bouffard

The research purpose was to examine the domain specific self-regulatory skills of boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD, n = 10) compared to peers without DCD (n = 10). A sport specific problem-solving task (hockey shot) and an educational problem-solving task (peg solitaire) were compared. Guided by Zimmerman’s (2000) social cognitive model of self-regulation, participants were taught to think aloud. Codes were developed under five categories: goals, knowledge, emotion, monitoring, and evaluation. The quantity of verbalization was similar in both groups but differences were found in verbalization quality. Results indicate that boys with DCD have emotional and planning differences on the hockey task, but only planning differences were evident on the peg solitaire task.

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Rating of Perceived Exertion, Heart Rate, and Oxygen Consumption in Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

Leona J. Holland, Marcel Bouffard, and Denise Wagner

The reliability of oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) at three different workloads was examined during an arm cranking exercise task. Nine persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and confined to a wheelchair each performed two sessions of discontinuous, submaximal aerobic test on an arm ergometer. Comparisons of the test scores and generalizability theory were used to analyze the data. Both HR and VO2 were found to be reliable measures under the conditions used in this study. RPE at the same workloads was found to be rather unreliable. Overall, the use of RPE as an indicator of exercise intensity instead of HR appears to be unjustified by the results of this study. Therefore, practitioners who want a quick and efficient method of measuring exercise intensity should use HR instead of RPE for persons with multiple sclerosis.

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Questioning Our Philosophical and Methodological Research Assumptions: Psychological Perspectives

Marcel Bouffard, William B. Strean, and Walter E. Davis

Philosophical and methodological assumptions often made by researchers working at the behavioral level of analysis in adapted physical activity are reviewed. Particular attention is given to movement skill acquisition research guided by a cognitive science or information processing approach and an ecological task analysis approach. In the final section of this paper, emerging views are used to illustrate other assumptions often tacitly made by movement skill researchers. Alternative possibilities offered by recent perspectives are also presented.

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Measuring Enjoyment in Youth Sport Settings: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale

Peter R.E. Crocker, Marcel Bouffard, and Mark E. Gessaroli

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A Test of the Activity Deficit Hypothesis with Children With Movement Difficulties

Marcel Bouffard, E. Jane Watkinson, Linda P. Thompson, Janice L. Causgrove Dunn, and Sandy K.E. Romanow

An activity deficit hypothesis was posited that children with movement difficulties are less physically active during recess than age- and gender-matched controls without movement difficulties. Criteria used in identifying children with movement difficulties were (a) a score of at least 4 on the Test of Motor Impairment, (b) regular physical education student, and (c) age 80 to 109 months. An observational study was conducted over a 2-month period in recess settings with 52 subjects. Findings revealed that during recess time, children with movement difficulties were vigorously active less often, played less often with large playground equipment, were not observable for significantly more time, and spent less time in positive social interactions with others of their own gender. Accordingly, it was concluded that the data support the activity deficit hypothesis.

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Walter E. Davis, Marcel Bouffard, Gail M. Dummer, Gary Kamen, Richard D. MacNeil, Terry L. Rizzo, Paul R. Surburg, and Garth Tymeson

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Walter E. Davis, Marcel Bouffard, Steven Butterfield, Gary Kamen, Barry Lavay, Wendell Liemohn, Jeffrey McCubbin, Terry L. Rizzo, and Stuart J. Schleien