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Occupational Socialization of Sport Pedagogy Faculty: Two German Case Studies

Anne M. Merrem and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of occupational socialization on the perspectives and practices of two female German sport pedagogy faculty members, Heidi and Lisa, regarding physical education (PE) and PE teacher education (PETE). Method: The main data sources were six formal interviews. Supplementary data were generated through informal interviewing, field notes made while observing and interacting with the two faculty members, document analysis, and electronic journaling. Data were coded and categorized by employing analytic induction and constant comparison. Findings: Findings illustrated the cyclical nature of the two faculty members’ occupational socialization. Heidi and Lisa gained traditional sport-focused teaching orientations from their acculturation that were mainly reinforced during subsequent phases of socialization. Conclusion: Key reasons for the perpetuation of the traditional sport-focused teaching orientation was the generic nature of PETE and doctoral programs and the fact that there was little competition between curricular PE and extracurricular sport in the schooling Heidi and Lisa experienced.

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Influence of Negotiations on Graduate Teaching Assistants’ Instruction Within University Activity Courses

Zachary Wahl-Alexander and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

Purpose: To examine the influence of negotiations between students and graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) on GTAs’ instruction within university physical activity classes. Method: Participants were 10 GTAs working in one university. Data collection and analysis were guided by constructs from the classroom ecology paradigm. Data collection techniques employed were non-participant observation, informal and formal interviews, and document analysis. Data were analyzed using analytic induction and constant comparison. Results: The type, focus, and extent of negotiations in GTAs’ activity classes varied considerably depending on whether or not they had received prior pedagogical training, gained experience of teaching physical education in schools, and were familiar with the content. Conclusion: Our findings suggest two courses of action be taken if quality activity courses are to be delivered. First, such classes should be taught by GTAs with pedagogical training and teaching experience. Alternatively, previously untrained and inexperienced GTAs should be given extensive preparation.

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“It’s My Time to . . . Fight Some of These Battles”: The Life History of an Exemplary African American PETE Faculty Member

Richard F. Jowers and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

Purpose: To construct the life history of an exemplary veteran African American physical education teacher education faculty member. Method: The participant was Dr. Andrew Lewis, a retired professor from the College of Charleston. Data were collected through formal semistructured interviews, informal interviews, and documents and artifacts. They were analyzed using analytic induction and constant comparison. Findings: Key findings were that Lewis experienced a significant amount of marginalization throughout his life and career. In addition, he was subjected to different forms of microaggression and stereotype threat. Lewis dealt with these forms of racism by emulating several of his teachers and professors, working hard, and performing to a high level. In addition, he altered the pedagogy he employed. Conclusion: Lewis’s counter-story has the potential to influence other African American physical education teacher education faculty members, administrators, and those who perpetuate stereotypes of African Americans or deal in microaggressions.

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“My Methods Courses Feel Like Walmart”: Influence of Secondary Organizational Socialization on Early Career Faculty Members’ Implementation of PETE

Jamie Jacob Brunsdon and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of secondary organizational socialization on seven early career faculty members’ (FMs’) implementation of physical education teacher education (PETE). Data were collected with four qualitative techniques and analyzed with standard interpretive methods. FMs delivered PETE that was either a hybrid of the traditional/craft and behavioristic orientations to teacher education or of the critical inquiry, traditional/craft, and behavioristic orientations. Cultural elements and conditions that helped or hindered FMs’ in PETE were identified. FMs coped with negative and unfavorable elements of their cultures and conditions by fully complying with, strategically complying with, and strategically redefining their situations, or finding a new position. The stories of these FMs should inspire administrators, senior colleagues, and those training doctoral students to reflect on the degree to which they help or hinder neophyte FMs, as well as aid doctoral students preparing to make the transition into faculty positions.

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Impact of a Physical Education Teacher’s Disability on Elementary Pupils’ Perceptions of Effectiveness and Learning

Lance G. Bryant and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a physical education teacher’s disability on elementary school pupils’ learning and perceptions of the teacher’s competence. Participants (N = 113) were randomly assigned to view one of two virtually identical videotaped swimming lessons. In the first lesson, the teacher was able-bodied (ABL) while in the second, she taught from a wheelchair (WCL). Following the viewing of their assigned lesson, pupils completed an examination over lesson content and a perception questionnaire regarding the teacher. Results showed that pupils who viewed the WCL scored significantly higher on the technique portion of the examination than pupils who watched the ABL. There were no significant differences between the perceptions of either group.

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Influence of Occupational Socialization on the Perspectives and Practices of Adapted Physical Education Teachers

Chan Woong Park and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

The purpose of this study was to describe and examine the occupational socialization of nine adapted physical educators (APEs). The questions we attempted to answer were (a) What were the perspectives and practices of the APEs? and (b) What factors influenced these perspectives and practices? Data were collected through six qualitative techniques and analyzed by using analytic induction and constant comparison. At the time the study was conducted, the APEs possessed traditional or progressive teaching orientations. They had been attracted to a career as an APE through their participation in sport and physical activity and interactions with persons with disabilities. The quality of adapted physical education teacher education the APEs received varied, but high-quality adapted physical education teacher education appeared to exert a powerful influence on their values and pedagogies. The school cultures and conditions in which the APEs worked on entry into the workforce either served to support or negate their programs. We conclude the paper by providing several hypotheses regarding the influences of occupational socialization on in-service APEs’ teaching.

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Physical Education Teacher Education: The Past, Present, and Future Questions

Matthew D. Curtner-Smith and Tim Fletcher

The purpose of this article is to overview the history of research in physical education teacher education (PETE), discuss contemporary trends, and identify future directions for scholarship and teacher education practice. Teacher education is defined as formal and informal experiences that contribute to teachers’ education across their careers. Using the phases of occupational socialization and Kosnik and Beck’s “seven priorities of teacher education” to frame an analysis of literature from the 1980s through to the present, a brief summary of research on PETE is provided, using the chronological categories of past and present. The analysis takes into account implications for PETE that were left by the global pandemic, where traditional PETE practices were significantly disrupted by a shift to online learning. The chapter is concluded by listing questions regarding PETE that researchers and teacher educators might tackle in the future.

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Impact of Occupational Socialization on South Korean Physical Education Teachers’ Interpretation and Delivery of the Hanaro Teaching Model

Seungsoo Baek and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

Purpose: To determine the impact of occupational socialization on eight South Korean teachers’ interpretation and delivery of the Hanaro Teaching (HT) model. Method: Data were collected through formal interviews, film of teachers employing HT, document analysis, reflective journaling, and the critical incident technique. They were analyzed using analytic induction and constant comparison. Findings: The teachers interpreted and delivered the HT model in four different ways. These were the full and full+ versions of the model, watered down, and taking a cafeteria approach. The organizational socialization phase was key in shaping how the teachers delivered the model. The teachers’ acculturation and professional socialization were mainly supplemental. Conclusions: The fact that seven of the teachers employed HT without any formal training suggests that the model was fairly easy to learn. Specific training in undergraduate physical education teacher education, however, could lead to more teachers employing the full and full+ versions of the model.

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Influence of an Elementary Methods Course and Early Field Experience on Preservice Teachers’ Value Orientations

Leah K. May, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, and Stefanie A. Wind

Purpose : To determine the influence of an elementary methods course and early field experience on eight preservice teachers’ (PTs’) value orientations. Method : The theoretical perspective employed was occupational socialization. Data were collected with the short form of the value orientation inventory and five qualitative techniques (formal and informal interviews, nonparticipant observation, critical incidents, and stimulated recall). The value orientation inventory profiles for the instructor and PTs were visually inspected for similarities and changes. Analytic induction and constant comparison were employed to analyze the qualitative data. Results : Value orientations of PTs with teaching and moderate coaching orientations were influenced by the methods course and early field experience, while those of PTs with strong coaching orientations were not. Factors leading to this evolution were the curriculum model employed, the instructor, and PTs’ increased confidence and knowledge of students. Summary and Conclusions : The study highlights the importance of faculty facilitating reflection on connections between instructional models and value orientations and how these relate to PTs’ beliefs.

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Negotiations Between Preservice Classroom Teachers and Students During a Physical Education Early Field Experience

Kelsey McEntyre, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, and Deborah S. Baxter

Purpose: To describe the patterns of negotiation engaged in by preservice classroom teachers (PCTs) and their students during a physical education early field experience. Method: The participants were 16 PCTs enrolled in the early field experience. They taught a variety of content within six lessons to second- and fourth-grade students. Data were collected using six qualitative methods and analyzed using analytic induction and constant comparison. Results/Conclusions: Seven PCTs were relatively effective negotiators, whereas nine PCTs were relatively ineffective. The PCTs’ negotiation skills were influenced by their comfort with physical education, pedagogical knowledge, content knowledge, and pedagogical content knowledge. The negotiations initiated by the PCTs and their students were similar to those described in previous studies. The type and amount of student-initiated negotiation was influenced by their gender, age, skill level, and content taught. The implications for preparing PCTs to teach physical education are discussed.