Purpose: Research indicates that physical education can be an effective setting for promoting positive values, attitudes, and behaviors that transfer to other settings. However, there is a lack of instrumentation to assess the cognitive and motivational aspects of the transfer process. Therefore, this study proposed and validated the Transfer of Responsibility Questionnaire (ToRQ). Methods: After instrument development and pilot testing, an initial version of the ToRQ was completed by 442 adolescents. Data analysis began with exploratory factor analysis followed by confirmatory factor analysis. Results: The exploratory factor analysis yielded a stable three-factor structure that measured the participants’ cognitive and motivational processes related to transfer. This factor structure was affirmed using confirmatory factor analysis, which also examined convergent and discriminant validity. Discussion/Conclusion: The model was a good fit for the data, and the ToRQ correlated positively with related scales from an existing life skill transfer survey. These analyses support the initial validation of the ToRQ.
Paul M. Wright, K. Andrew R. Richards, Jennifer M. Jacobs, and Michael A. Hemphill
Michael A. Hemphill, Andrew R. Richards, Thomas J. Templin, and Bonnie Tjeerdsma Blankenship
Previous reviews of research have documented the increasing use of qualitative inquiry in physical education. In this research note, the authors present a content analysis of qualitative research articles published between 1998 and 2008 in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE). A total of 110 empirical articles were published that included a qualitative component, 38.2% of those used mixed methods. Results include analyses of types of qualitative research, research focus, theoretical frameworks, data collection techniques, trustworthiness techniques, and participants. The Research Authorship Score revealed that qualitative research tends to rely on teams of researchers in the conduct of studies. By extending previous work, this study reveals that qualitative research continues to play a significant role in research on physical education.
Russell L. Carson, Michael A. Hemphill, K. Andrew R. Richards, and Tom Templin
As teachers move toward the end of their careers, understanding the experiences that help them derive satisfaction from their work has implications for helping them stay engaged in teaching. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine the job satisfaction of late career physical education teachers. Jessica, Sandy, and Bill were later career physical education teachers (17–28 years of experience) who served as participants. All three had been colleagues at Harrisburg Middle School for 13 years. Data were collected using a job satisfaction graphing technique and qualitative interviews, and were analyzed using inductive analysis and constant comparison. Data analysis resulted in three themes related to the interactions teachers experienced with people in the school: ‘the kids and control,’ ‘our administration and marginalization,’ and ‘my fellow coworkers.’ Each theme related to both positive and negative appraisals of the teachers’ work. Implications for practice and future research are noted.
Michael A. Hemphill, Yongsun Lee, Sarah Ragab, Jeremy Rinker, and Omari L. Dyson
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the process of developing an alternative physical education program using restorative justice practices as a transformative approach to social–emotional learning. Method: This study utilizes qualitative case study methods to examine the implementation process and short-term outcomes. Data sources include focus group interviews, student journals, observations, and reflective field notes. Trustworthiness of the findings are supported by triangulation, peer debriefings, prolonged engagement, and external program reviews. Results: The implementation of social and emotional learning was substantiated by student engagement with four class goals in which they aimed to participate in physical education as “champions,” “heroes,” “achievers,” and “peacemakers.” Restorative pedagogy included restorative chats, listening circles, community circles, and healing circles. Conclusion: This study suggests that transformative curriculum, such as restorative justice, offers a transformative approach to social and emotional learning that is applicable to physical education.