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Celebrating 10 Years of the Global Observatory for Physical Activity—GoPA!

Michael Pratt, Andrea Ramírez Varela, and Pedro C. Hallal

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Research on Physical Activity and Health: Where Is Latin America?

Pedro C. Hallal, Diana C. Parra, Mario R. Azevedo, Michael Pratt, and Ross C. Brownson

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Intensity-Specific Leisure-Time Physical Activity and The Built Environment Among Brazilian Adults: A Best-Fit Model

Deborah Salvo, Rodrigo S. Reis, Adriano A.F. Hino, Pedro C. Hallal, and Michael Pratt

Background:

There is little understanding about which sets of environmental features could simultaneously predict intensity-specific leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among Brazilians. The objectives were to identify the environmental correlates for intensity-specific LTPA, and to build the best-fit linear models to predict intensity-specific LTPA among adults of Curitiba, Brazil.

Methods:

Cross sectional study in Curitiba, Brazil (2009, n = 1461). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Assessment Scale were used. Ninety-two perceived environment variables were categorized in 10 domains. LTPA was classified as walking for leisure (LWLK), moderate-intensity leisure-time PA (MLPA), vigorous-intensity leisure-time PA (VLPA), and moderate-to-vigorous intensity leisure-time PA (MVLPA). Best fitting linear predictive models were built.

Results:

Forty environmental variables were correlated to at least 1 LTPA outcome. The variability explained by the 4 best-fit models ranged from 17% (MLPA) to 46% (MVLPA). All models contained recreation areas and aesthetics variables; none included residential density predictors. At least 1 neighborhood satisfaction variable was present in each of the intensity-specific models, but not for overall MVLPA.

Conclusions:

This study demonstrates the simultaneous effect of sets of perceived environmental features on intensity-specific LTPA among Brazilian adults. The differences found compared with high-income countries suggest caution in generalizing results across settings.

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Physical Activity and Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Brazil

Maria Laura Resem Brizio, Pedro C. Hallal, I-Min Lee, and Marlos Rodrigues Domingues

Background:

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between lifetime physical activity and risk of lung cancer.

Methods:

A case-control study was conducted in southern Brazil. Case subjects were recruited from oncology services of 4 hospitals. Control subjects were selected from the same hospitals, but from different services (traumatology and emergency). Both case subjects (n = 81) and control subjects (n = 168) were interviewed using a questionnaire about sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric information and family history of cancer. Control subjects were matched to case subjects according to sex and age (± 5 years). Detailed information on smoking was collected. Physical activity was measured using the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire.

Results:

Of the case subjects, 89% were either current or former smokers; among control subjects, this value was 57%. Participants in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of all-domains physical activity had odds ratios of 0.54 (95% CI, 0.21–1.40), 0.25 (95% CI, 0.08–0.72), and 0.24 (95% CI, 0.07–0.83) for lung cancer, compared with the lowest quartile, after adjusting for confounding. In the fully adjusted models, leisure-time physical activity was not associated with lung cancer risk.

Conclusion:

Lifetime all-domains physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer.

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Changes in Leisure-Time Physical Activity From the Prepregnancy to the Postpartum Period: 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

Carolina Coll, Marlos Domingues, Iná Santos, Alicia Matijasevich, Bernardo Lessa Horta, and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and its correlates from prepregnancy to the postpartum period in mothers enrolled in a Brazilian birth cohort study. Our hypothesis was that LTPA would decline considerably during pregnancy.

Methods:

Maternal LTPA in the 3 months before pregnancy and during each trimester of pregnancy was assessed soon after delivery. A follow-up visit was conducted 3 months later. Weekly frequency and duration of each session of LTPA in a typical week were assessed for each period and a cut-off point of 150 minutes per week was used to classify women as active or not.

Results:

The proportion of women active in leisure time declined from 11.3% in the prepregnancy to 2.3% in pregnancy and 0.1% in the postpartum period (P for trend <0.001). When considering any LTPA practice, the decline ranged from 15.4% to 4.4% and 7.5% (p for trend <0.001), respectively. Higher income, higher education and lower parity were the main predictors of LTPA practice.

Conclusions:

LTPA declined considerably during pregnancy and did not return to prepregnancy levels at 3 months postpartum. Mothers must be advised on the benefits of LTPA prepregnancy, during, and postpregnancy.

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One-year Stability of Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Young Brazilian Adults

Rafaela Costa Martins, Felipe Fossati Reichert, Renata Moraes Bielemann, and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

To evaluate the 1-year stability of objectively measured physical activity among young adults living in South Brazil, as well as assessing the influences of temperature, humidity and precipitation on physical activity.

Methods:

A longitudinal study was conducted over 12 consecutive months (October 2012 to September 2013). Sixteen participants (8 men) used GT3X+ accelerometers 1 week per month for the entire year. Climate variables were obtained from an official climate information provider.

Results:

Physical activity was remarkably stable over the year—the proportion of the day spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was around 5% in every month. Average temperature (ρ = –0.64; P = .007), humidity (ρ = –0.68; P = .004) and rain (ρ = –0.67; P = .004) were inversely correlated to MVPA in the Summer. Rain was also inversely correlated to MVPA in the Spring (ρ = –0.54; P = .03).

Conclusions:

Objectively measured physical activity was stable over a 1-year period. Climate variables consistently influenced physical activity practice in the Summer, but not in the other seasons.

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Ten-Year Trends in Total Physical Activity Practice in Brazilian Adults: 2002-2012

Pedro C. Hallal, Kelly Cordeira, Alan G. Knuth, Grégore Iven Mielke, and Cesar G. Victora

Background:

One-third of adults worldwide are physically inactive causing over 5.3 million deaths annually. Despite a growing focus on physical activity and health, population-based data on physical activity trends in low- and middle-income countries are still limited. To help fill the gap, this study provides trend data over a 10-year period in Pelotas, a southern Brazilian city.

Methods:

The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of physical inactivity in 2002 (n = 3119), 2007 (n = 2969), and 2012 (n = 2868). Levels of inactivity and trends were assessed according to sex, age, schooling, and socioeconomic position (SEP).

Results:

The prevalence of physical inactivity rose from 41.1% (95% CI: 37.4–44.9) in 2002 and 52.0% (95% CI: 49.1–53.8) in 2007 to 54.4% (95% CI: 51.8–56.9) in 2012 (P < .001). Physical inactivity significantly increased in all subgroups except in the highest SEP and 70+ year age subgroups.

Conclusions:

After a sharp increase in the prevalence of physical inactivity from 2002–2007, levels plateaued from 2007–2012. However, it is important to stress that current levels are still unacceptably high, and that efforts must be intensified to reverse the trend.

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Life Course Epidemiology Applied to Physical Activity Research

Gregore Iven Mielke, Ding Ding, Tracy Kolbe-Alexander, Esther van Sluijs, and Pedro C. Hallal

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Leisure-Time Physical Activity: Association With Activity Levels in Other Domains

Airton J. Rombaldi, Ana M.B. Menezes, Mario Renato Azevedo, and Pedro C. Hallal

Objectives:

To explore whether participation in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with participation in occupational, housework, and transport-related physical activity.

Methods:

Population-based cross-sectional study covering a multistage sample of 972 subjects age 20 to 69 years. Physical activity was measured using the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A LTPA score was calculated as follows: min/wk of walking + min/wk of moderate-intensity physical activity + (min/wk of vigorous-intensity physical activity × 2). Similar scores were generated for each domain. For categorical analyses, the scores were divided into 3 categories: 0 min/wk, 10−149 min/wk, and ≥150 min/wk.

Results:

The proportion of subjects practicing less than 150 min/wk of physical activity in each domain was: leisure-time (69.8%), occupational (58.3%), housework (35.0%), transportation (51.9%). Subjects with a transport-related physical activity score equal to or above 150 min/wk were 40% less likely to be sedentary in leisure-time in comparison with those who did not practice transport-related physical activity. Housework and occupational physical activity were not related to participation in LTPA.

Conclusions:

Future physical activity campaigns should focus on other domains instead of LTPA alone, particularly supporting transport-related physical activity as a strategy of health promotion.

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A Quick Guide for Becoming a Better Peer Reviewer

Ding Ding, Pedro C. Hallal, Loretta DiPietro, and Harold W. (Bill) Kohl III