This study investigated whether gratitude predicted burnout directly and indirectly through coach–athlete relationships. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Divisions I (n = 305), II (n = 202), and III (n = 89) student-athletes (N = 596, 76.5% women) completed a survey regarding athlete burnout, coach–athlete relationships, trait gratitude, and state gratitude (sport and general). Structural equation modeling revealed that gratitude predicted athletes’ burnout. Sport state gratitude was the most accurate negative predictor of burnout. In addition, indirect associations between sport state gratitude and burnout emerged through coach–athlete relationships, suggesting that sport state gratitude was positively associated with coach–athlete relationships, which in turn, negatively predicted burnout. Coach–athlete relationships were positively predicted by sport state gratitude. These findings suggest that grateful student-athletes may experience less burnout, and athletes who have strong coach–athlete relationships may experience more gratitude.
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Jeffrey B. Ruser, Mariya A. Yukhymenko-Lescroart, Jenelle N. Gilbert, Wade Gilbert, and Stephanie D. Moore
Katherine E. Hirsch, Todd M. Loughead, Gordon A. Bloom, and Wade D. Gilbert
The purpose of this commentary is to provide a broad overview of the empirical research-based articles published in the International Sport Coaching Journal from its inception in 2014 through 2020. Data from 101 publications were collected and analyzed using Arksey and O’Malley’s six-stage framework for conducting scoping reviews. Data were extracted on the size and scope of research, populations and perspectives studied, and methodologies and data collection methods used. The results show that empirical research publications grew more prominent over time (i.e., 24.0% of 2014 publications vs. 58.1% of 2020 publications) compared with other publication types. The most commonly researched topics included coach development and coach behaviors. The participants most studied were male coaches, performance sport coaches, and adult sport coaches, featuring primarily European and North American coaches. The majority of studies used a qualitative methodology with the most common research designs being phenomenological and case studies. A variety of data collection methods were used that involved one-on-one interviews and questionnaires. Several recommendations are advanced to stakeholders, including strategies to promote racial and gender diversity and to collect and report demographic data on race and coaching experience.