The purpose of this study was to examine the estimated body composition values of women hospitalized for treatment of anorexia nervosa in relation to values reported in the literature for women without known dietary problems. Sixteen volunteers between the ages of 16 and 37 years from hospitals in California and Texas participated in the study. Data collected included height, weight, and selected skinfold and circumference measures. Statistical analyses included independent and paired t tests. Significant differences were found between the percent body fat of anorexic subjects (M = 15.54%) and that of normative women in the Jackson, Pollock, and Ward (1980) study (M = 24.09%). When the actual weight of the anorexic subjects (M = 99.3 lb) was compared with their theoretical minimal weight calculated by the Behnke (1969) formula (M = 106.5 lb), no significant difference was obtained. A comparison of somatogram data for the anorexic women and the reference woman found significant differences at 5 of the 11 sites measured.
Paula Charest-Lilly, Claudine Sherrill, and Joel Rosentswieg
April Tripp, Ron French, and Claudine Sherrill
Contact theory was examined by comparing total and subscale attitude scores of children toward peers with disabilities (physical, learning, behavioral) in integrated (contact) and segregated (noncontact) physical education settings. Subjects were 455 children ages 9 to 12 years; class size was 40 to 45. Data were collected using the Peer Attitudes Toward the Handicapped Scale (PATHS). ANOVA on total attitude scores indicated gender differences, with girls having more positive attitudes, but no difference between settings. MANOVA on subscale attitude scores revealed gender differences, favoring girls, only on the physical disability subscale. Setting significantly affected attitudes toward physical and behavioral disabilities but not learning disabilities. Children in the integrated setting had significantly more positive attitudes toward peers with behavioral disabilities than those in the segregated setting, but the reverse was true toward peers with physical disabilities. Contact theory was supported by this research for only behavioral disability.
Christoph Lienert, Claudine Sherrill, and Bettye Myers
The purpose was to conduct a qualitative cross-cultural comparison of the concerns of physical educators in two countries about integration of children with and without disabilities. In-depth interviews were held with 30 regular elementary physical education teachers in Berlin (7 males, 9 females) and in the Dallas-Ft. Worth (DFW) area (2 males, 12 females), and observations were made of school settings. The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) of Hall, Wallace, and Dossett (1973) guided the study. Data were analyzed by grounded theory procedures. Many concerns about integration were generalizable across cultures. In both countries, teachers reported concerns at only four of the seven stages of CBAM: personal, management, consequence, and collaboration. Most concerns focused on management. The major cultural difference was that DFW teachers reported more personal concerns (uncertainty about everyday demands and competence to meet these demands) than Berlin teachers. A dynamic systems model was proposed to guide future research.
Claudine Sherrill, Wanda Rainbolt, and Sandra Ervin
Thirty blind adults, ages 16 to 50 years, were interviewed concerning their attitudes toward physical education and recreation in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood and the variables which may have contributed to these feelings. The tape recorded responses to 22 open-ended questions were transcribed and subsequently rated as positive or negative by three judges. Significant z values (p < .05) between positive and negative responses were obtained for 16 of the 22 questions. Attitudes toward school-based experiences were positive whereas attitudes toward neighborhood, community, church, and family experiences were negative. A two-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences in attitudes by school placement (residential vs. public). Males had significantly more positive attitudes toward physical education and recreation than females.
Marilyn A. Cooper, Claudine Sherrill, and David Marshall
Attitudes toward physical activity were examined in relation to sports classification (nonambulatory vs. ambulatory) and gender for elite cerebral palsied athletes and were compared to attitudes of elite Canadian able-bodied athletes (Alderman, 1970). Subjects were 165 CP adult athletes who competed in the 1983 National CP Games, Ft. Worth, Texas. Data were collected by interview on the Simon and Smoll Attitude Toward Physical Activity Scale (SATPA). SATPA answers were treated with MANOVA and ANOVA, and the Scheffé test was used for post hoc analysis. No significant difference was found among class, gender, and class-by-gender combinations in attitudes toward physical activity. Adult CP athletes have positive attitudes toward the total concept of physical activity, but are significantly less favorably disposed to physical activity as a thrill and as long and hard training than as social experience, health and fitness, beauty, and tension release.
David Slininger, Claudine Sherrill, and Catherine M. Jankowski
The purpose was to compare the effects of three physical education settings (structured contact, nonstructured contact, and no contact) on attitudes of children toward peers with severe mental retardation who used wheelchairs. Contact theory (Allport, 1954) guided the study. Participants were 131 Grade 4 students (62 females, 69 males) in three intact classes that were randomly assigned to treatments. During the experimental period (4 weeks, 20 sessions, each 25 min), two children in wheelchairs were integrated into each contact class, and a special helper model was implemented. The experimental design was pretest-posttest randomized groups. Attitudes were assessed by an adjective checklist and an intention survey. A three-way ANOVA (Gender X Group X Time) revealed that females had significantly better attitudes than males. Subsequent analysis revealed that males in the structured contact group improved significantly on the adjective checklist, whereas males in the nonstructured contact group improved significantly on the intention survey.
Sheng K. Wu, Trevor Williams, and Claudine Sherrill
The purpose was to examine classifiers as agents of social control in disability swimming. The examination centered on three themes: (a) resources used by classifiers to maintain the authority of Sports Assembly Executive Committee–Swimming (SAEC-SW) of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), (b) socialization to become classifiers, and (c) influence of dominant groups. Data were collected using participant observation methodology at national and international swimming championships and a survey of the 18 SAEC-SW authorized classifiers. The results identified six essential features of SAEC-SW classifiers. SAEC-SW classifiers use their medical and swimming knowledge and experience to control the classification process and to maintain fairness of competition. Socialization of SAEC-SW classifiers enables them to play their role appropriately in disability swimming classification.
Leslie J. Low, Mary J. Knudsen, and Claudine Sherrill
In recent years, the number of individuals with dwarfism participating in sports and physical activities has increased. The Dwarf Athletic Association of America (DAAA) has grown from 30 athletes in 1985 to over 600 in 1994. This paper details the structural, intellectual, motor, orthopedic, and medical characteristics of six types of dwarfism (achondroplasia, hypochon-droplasia, cartilage-hair hypoplasia, diastrophic dysplasia, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda, and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita) seen in individuals currently participating in eight DAAA-sanctioned sports. Implications and modifications for participation in physical activity, physical education, and sport are included.
Pilvikki Heikinaro-Johansson, Claudine Sherrill, Ronald French, and Heikki Huuhka
The purpose of this research was to develop and test an adapted physical education consultant model to assist regular elementary school classroom teachers to include children with special needs into regular physical education. The consultation model consisted of (a) Level 1, conducting a needs assessment, (b) Level 2, designing/implementing the program, and (c) Level 3, evaluating the program. The model was tested in two communities in Finland using the intensive and the limited consulting approaches. Data collection methods included videotaped observations of teacher and students, interviews, dialogue at interdisciplinary team meetings, and journals. Results are presented as case studies, which describe the process and product over a 2-month period of model implementation. Analysis of data indicate that classroom teachers, paraprofessionals, and students benefited from the consultant model. The adapted physical education consultant model appears to be a viable approach in facilitating the integration of children with special needs.
Deborah J. Buswell, Claudine Sherrill, Ronald French, and Bettye Myers
The purpose was to examine perspectives on publication of highly productive women adapted physical activity scholars. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 women from three countries, and data were analyzed utilizing constant comparison methodology. Profiles of two groups, significantly different on publication productivity, emerged and were named highest high producers (HHP) and other high producers (OHP). Similarities between the two groups included affective domain qualities, facilitating factors, and overcoming barriers. Differences were mainly in degree of self-determination, prioritization of writing relative to significant others, collaboration, and collegiality. Based on thematic analysis of interview data, we posited the following: high publication productivity of women adapted physical activity professionals is associated with internal motivation to write, which is enhanced by positive interactions with other professionals, supportive home environments, and supportive work environments.