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Amelia Mays Woods, Kim C. Graber, David Newman Daum, and Chris Gentry

This study examined physical activity (PA) variables related to recess PA patterns of kindergarten, first and second grade children, and the social preferences and individuals influencing their PA. Data collected (N = 147) used the System of Observing Children’s Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP) instrument. Children were interviewed. Kindergarten boys spent a significantly higher percentage of time in MVPA (t = 3.137, d = .96, p < .008). Kindergarten girls spent significantly more time standing (t = 3.548, d = 1.07, p < .008). Second grade boys spent a significantly (t = 4.44, d = 1.98, p < .0125) more time in sport activities. Second grade girls spent significantly more time in sedentary (t = 4.399, d = 1.11, p < .0125) and locomotor (t = 3.533, d = .899, p < .0125) activities. Participants articulated the prominence of friends, engaging in games/activities, and playing on the playground equipment.

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Amelia Mays Woods, Kristin N. Bolton, Kim C. Graber, and Gary S. Crull

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Ben D. Kern, Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, and Tom Templin

Physical education teachers have been criticized for not implementing progressive or innovative instruction resulting in enhanced student knowledge and skills for lifetime participation in physical activity. Purpose: To investigate how teachers with varying dispositions toward change perceive socializing agents and teaching context as barriers to or facilitators of making pedagogical change. Methods: Thirty-two teachers completed a survey of personal dispositions toward change and participated in in-depth interviews. Results: Teachers perceived that students’ response to instructional methods and student contact time (days/week), as well as interactions with teaching colleagues and administrators influenced their ability to make pedagogical changes. Teachers with limited student contact time reported scheduling as a barrier to change, whereas daily student contact was a facilitator. Change-disposed teachers were more likely to promote student learning and assume leadership roles. Conclusion: Reform efforts should include consideration of teacher dispositions and student contact time.

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Kim C. Graber, Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko, Jamie A. O’Connor, and Jenny M. Linker

Civic engagement and service learning opportunities provide students with unique real-world experiences they are unable to acquire in a traditional in-class setting. Students develop a commitment to the community in which they live, exposure to other populations, leadership abilities, skills to work successfully within a team, and a chance to learn from failure. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching has recognized the importance of such opportunities and has added the Community Engagement Classification to the restructured Carnegie Classifications of Institutions of Higher Education. The purpose of this paper is to provide a synthesis of the literature that addresses civic engagement and service learning opportunities and to describe a university class that was designed to provide undergraduate students with a capstone service learning experience promoting wellness for older adults in the community. Data that were collected to evaluate the success of the class are also described.

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Chad M. Killian, Amelia Mays Woods, Kim C. Graber, and Thomas J. Templin

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with high school physical education (PE) teachers’ adoption of a supplemental online instructional system. Method: Semistructured, open-ended phone interviews with 28 high school PE teachers were used as the primary data collection method. All teachers were using or had used a supplemental online instructional system at the time of the study. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) guided the directed content analysis. Results: Four main categories were generated, including perceived programmatic, instructional, and inclusivity improvements; minimal personal and student usage effort; school and curriculum provider support facilitated use; and administrators’ dictated long-term use. Discussion/Conclusion: The results aligned well with the UTAUT and served to situate the theory within the secondary PE context. The participants’ perceptions and experiences were also contradictory to much of the current research on teachers’ technology adoption in PE and K–12 education, more generally.

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Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, Chad M. Killian, K. Andrew R. Richards, and Jesse L. Rhoades

Purpose: The landscape of physical education has shifted in the 30 years since Metzler and Freedman’s seminal study examining the demographics of physical education teacher education faculty. Changes in the structure of physical education and academia justify an updated investigation, with particular emphasis on the gender and institutional affiliation of faculty. Methods: An expanded and validated version of Metzler and Freedman’s survey was e-mailed to 908 physical education teacher education faculty from 505 U.S. institutions. A response rate of 46.21% was achieved. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics to examine differences based on gender and institutional affiliation. Results: Gender salary disparities have decreased, whereas teaching experience and qualifications of faculty have increased. Corresponding increases in research productivity were notably evident. Discussion/Conclusion: Faculty members remain predominately European American, publication output has increased, more institutions are hiring nontenure-track faculty, and perceptions of support for physical education are lower than in 1985.

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Alyssa M. Trad, Christopher J. Kinder, Kim C. Graber, and Amelia Mays Woods

Purpose: Grounded in occupational socialization theory, the purpose of this study was to test a conceptual framework for understanding the role of emotional intelligence and resilience in the development of perceived mattering among U.S. physical education teacher education faculty using structural equation modeling. Method: The sample included 286 U.S. faculty members (151 females and 135 males), and the data were collected through an online survey that included instruments to measure key study variables. The primary analyses used structural equation modeling to evaluate relationships hypothesized in the conceptual model. Results: While not all hypothesized relationships in the model were significant, generally, the results confirmed the hypothesized relationships among the study variables, suggesting that resilience mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence and perceived mattering. Discussion: Socioemotional skills, such as emotional intelligence, appear important for helping physical education teacher education faculty members perceive resiliency and mattering in their work. Accordingly, these skills should be considered for doctoral education and faculty development programs.

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Gabriella McLoughlin, Courtney Weisman Fecske, Yvette Castaneda, Candace Gwin, and Kim Graber

There are many reasons why individuals are motivated to participate in sports. Less attention, however, is given for studying motivation and athlete development in adapted sport. The purpose of this study was to identify the motivations, facilitators, and barriers to sports participation of elite athletes with a physical disability. Participants (N = 23, 17 males, six females, mean age: 24.3 years) were recruited through online listservs, e-mails, and snowball sampling. A semistructured interview guide was employed. Analysis was conducted and grounded in self-determination theory and literature surrounding barriers and facilitators of sports participation. Through coding by multiple researchers, six themes emerged. Themes indicated that athletes attributed participation to constructs of self-determination theory as well as overcoming specific barriers such as cost, time constraints, and lack of opportunity. Among facilitators to their athletic development, there were empowerment and advocacy, increased health, college scholarships, and achieving performance-related goals.

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Ben D. Kern, Chad M. Killian, Douglas W. Ellison, Kim C. Graber, Elaine Belansky, and Nicholas Cutforth

The purpose of this study was to determine how the research intervention called Healthy Eaters, Lifelong Movers (HELM) and associated San Luis Valley Physical Education Academy (SLVPEA) influenced teachers’ beliefs about physical education and the extent to which they sustained pedagogical changes over time. Seventeen physical educators who completed the 2-year intervention were interviewed 3 years later, and data collected during HELM/SLVPEA using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time were analyzed to create an individual change profile. Mean difference of System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time variables at baseline and postintervention was analyzed using dependent, paired-samples t tests, treating each participant as a separate case. Qualitative data were analyzed using a standard interpretive approach and constant comparison methodology. Teachers made significant changes during HELM/SLVPEA and maintained these changes 3 years later. Their beliefs about physical education were altered, and many reported feeling less marginalized. The provision of resources along with ongoing site support facilitated changes in beliefs and practice.