Purposes: The purposes of this study were to describe (a) the perspectives and practices of two beginning physical education teachers working in the COVID-19 pandemic and (b) the influence of the teachers’ occupational socialization on these perspectives and practices. Method: Data were collected with four qualitative techniques (formal interviews, informal interviews, document analysis, and a reflection journal). They were analyzed by employing the techniques of analytic induction and constant comparison. Findings: Jason and Lane were able to cope with and successfully adapt their teaching to the conditions dictated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This appeared to be due to the influence of their professional and secondary professional socialization and the fact that their schools’ cultures were mainly supportive. Conclusions: The study indicates that research-based undergraduate physical education teacher education combined with a specialist sport pedagogy master’s degree can produce skilled physical educators able to deliver effective physical education, even in very difficult circumstances.
“It’s Been a Hell of a First Year. I Can Tell You That”: Two Novice Physical Educators’ Experiences Teaching in a Global Pandemic
Jacob T. Peterson, Meghan Dennis, and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
“It’s Avoiding Getting Sued for Concussion for Those Kids”: Pedagogical Responses of Youth Soccer Coaches to New Guidelines on Heading
Colin S. Barnes and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
Purpose: To describe nine youth soccer coaches’ pedagogical responses to the implementation of the new guidelines on heading introduced by the United States Soccer Federation. The specific research questions we attempted to answer were: (a) What were the coaches’ perspectives and practices regarding the coaching of heading? and (b) What factors shaped the coaches’ perspectives and practices? Method: The theoretical framework employed was occupational socialization. Data were collected using four qualitative techniques and reduced to themes using analytic induction and constant comparison. Findings: Key findings were that the coaches fell into one of three groups: rejectors, acceptors, and skeptics. Differences in the coaches’ acculturation, professional socialization, and organizational socialization were responsible for the coaches’ differing responses to the new guidelines on heading. Conclusions: Should they transfer to other coaches, these findings should help coach educators to develop stronger programs.
Impact of a Physical Education Teacher’s Age on Elementary School Students’ Perceptions of Effectiveness and Learning
Colin G. Pennington, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, and Stefanie A. Wind
Purpose: To examine the impact of a physical education teacher’s age on students’ learning and perceptions of the teacher. Method: A total of 188 elementary students were randomly assigned to view one of two virtually identical filmed swimming lessons. In the young-appearance lesson, the teacher was youthful. In the middle-aged lesson, he had been aged by a theatrical make-up artist. Following the viewing of their assigned lesson, students completed an examination covering lesson content and a questionnaire about their perceptions of the teacher. Results: Inferential statistical tests indicated that students who watched the young-appearance lesson scored significantly higher on the examination and perceived the teacher to be significantly more likable, more competent, and a better role model than those who viewed the middle-aged lesson. Discussion: These findings could be interpreted as supporting either a sociological or psychological/developmental explanation for how and why students respond to and learn from older and younger physical educators.
Influence of a Training Program on Preservice Teachers’ Ability to Negotiate With Students
Zachary Wahl-Alexander, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, and Oleg A. Sinelnikov
Purpose: Previous research has indicated that preservice teachers (PTs) and students take part in negotiations during the instructional process which can significantly impact the nature and quality of instruction. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a training program on the ability of PTs to negotiate while teaching lessons in multi-activity (MA) and sport education (SE) units. Methods: Participants were 13 PTs enrolled in a middle school early field experience (EFE). They taught 13-lesson MA and SE soccer units to 94 students aged 10 to 13 years. The training program included a two-session workshop prior to the EFE and multiple follow-up observations with feedback throughout the EFE. Data were collected by utilizing seven qualitative techniques and analyzed using analytic induction and constant comparison. Results and Conclusions: The key finding was that the training program was effective in that it enhanced PTs’ ability to negotiate with their students. In addition, the study provided more evidence indicating that different patterns of negotiations take place within MA and SE units and that generally negotiating within SE is a more positive experience for teachers and students.
Patterns of Preservice Teacher–Student Negotiation Within the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model
Kelsey McEntyre, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, and K. Andrew R. Richards
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the patterns of teacher–student negotiation that occurred when preservice teachers (PTs) taught within the teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model. Method: The participants were seven PTs enrolled in an elementary early field experience. They taught three to four mini-units of TPSR. Seven qualitative techniques were employed to collect data, and standard interpretive techniques were used to analyze them. Results: Three general patterns of negotiation were identified. In the units taught by two of the PTs, the negotiations became more positive. For three of the PTs, the rates of negotiation were constant. In the units taught by the remaining two PTs, the negotiations became more negative. Key factors influencing the patterns of negotiation were PTs’ comprehension of and comfort with the TPSR model; class size; and students’ age, gender, and skill level. Conclusion: These findings may help faculty develop more nuanced and effective training for PTs learning to teach through TPSR.
“From a Learning Perspective, It’s a Better Way for Them to Learn”: Impact of an Education Program on Two Youth Soccer Coaches’ Perspectives and Practices
Colin S. Barnes and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
Purpose: To describe the following: (a) the impact of a progressive coach education program (CEP) on two grassroots youth soccer coaches’ perspectives and practices, and (b) the factors that helped and hindered the CEP’s effectiveness. Methods: Occupational socialization theory framed the study. Andros and Christian were observed during the CEP and pre- and post-CEP while coaching practices and games. Data were collected with four qualitative techniques and two systematic observation instruments. Qualitative data were reduced to themes by employing analytic induction and constant comparison. Descriptive statistics were computed for the categories in the systematic observation instruments. Findings: The CEP had a significant impact on Andros and a negligible one on Christian. The two coaches’ occupational socialization helped explain these differential effects. Conclusions: The study suggests that CEPs should have a greater impact on coaches if they are relatively lengthy, include follow-up support, and coach educators are aware of coaches’ acculturation and organizational socialization.
The Legacy and Influence of Catherine D. Ennis’s Value Orientations Research
Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, Deborah. S. Baxter, and Leah K. May
In this article, the authors examine work conducted on 6 value orientations in physical education pioneered by Dr. Catherine D. Ennis and her colleagues. After providing an overview they focus on areas and methods of VOI research, specifically descriptions and comparisons (gender, teachers’ experience, school level, nationality, location, level of training, race, and physical activity background), the influence of value orientations on pedagogy (content and instructional models), and interventions (curricula and physical education teacher education). They conclude with suggestions for further research.
A Self-Study of a Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Program Coordinator
Victoria N. Shiver, Kevin Andrew Richards, Oleg A. Sinelnikov, and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
Purpose: The teaching personal and social responsibility model has been incorporated into out of school time programming globally, but there is limited research focused on how practitioners learn to use the model. Guided by occupational socialization theory, the authors used self-study to understand the experiences of a doctoral student as she developed and implemented a teaching personal and social responsibility-based program in an elementary after-school program. Method: Data were collected through reflective journaling and critical friend discussions. Results: Qualitative data analysis resulted in three turning points: (a) a planted seed needs light and rain, (b) an emerging bud with growing roots, and (c) rising in full bloom. High frustration was present at the start, but she grew to fully enjoy and utilize the model. Discussion/Conclusion: Self-study played a role in her ability to continue learning and growing. These findings reinforce the challenging but rewarding process of implementing novel instructional approaches.
“It’s a Lot Less Hassle and a Lot More Fun”: Factors That Sustain Teachers’ Enthusiasm for and Ability to Deliver Sport Education
Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, Gary D. Kinchin, Peter A. Hastie, Jamie J. Brunsdon, and Oleg A. Sinelnikov
Purposes: (a) To describe how more experienced and expert teachers interpreted and delivered sport education (SE) during their careers and (b) to discover and describe factors within their occupational socialization that sustained the teachers’ enthusiasm for and ability to deliver SE. Method: Participants were nine teachers. Primary data sources were formal interviews. Secondary supporting sources were documents and film. They were analyzed by employing standard interpretive methods. Credibility and trustworthiness were established through a search for discrepant and negative cases and member checking. Findings: At different times in their careers, the teachers delivered SE in one of four ways: watered down, through a cafeteria approach, the full version, and the full+ version. A number of factors from their acculturation, professional socialization, and organizational socialization enabled the teachers to deliver the full+ version or led to them delivering other versions of the model. Conclusions: The findings allow us to make practical suggestions for preservice and inservice teacher education that may help university faculty facilitate the teaching of SE.
Influence of Occupational Socialization on Sport Pedagogy Doctoral Students’ Beliefs and Actions
Richard F. Jowers, Jamie J. Brunsdon, Jacob T. Peterson, Hayden L. Mitchell, and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
Purpose: To examine the influence of occupational socialization on the beliefs and actions of six sport pedagogy doctoral students (DSs) in terms of physical education (PE) teaching and physical education teacher education (PETE). Method: Data were collected with five qualitative techniques and analyzed by employing analytic induction and constant comparison. Results: DSs had conservative or liberal views about PE and endorsed hybrid forms of PETE, which included elements of the behavioristic, traditional/craft, and critical inquiry orientations. Patterns of socialization that shaped these beliefs and actions were both congruent and contrasting with those described in past research. Conclusions: The study highlights the importance of asking potential DSs about their beliefs and the forces that shaped those beliefs during recruitment. In addition, it indicates that the potency of doctoral education can be enhanced when it has a dual focus on PETE and research and when DSs experience it within a cohort.