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Coordination in International and Domestic Sports Events: Examining Stakeholder Network Governance

Michael L. Naraine, Jessie Schenk, and Milena M. Parent

This paper sought to examine the stakeholder network governance structures of two international and two domestic multisports events focusing on (a) exploring the structural connectedness of these networks and (b) illuminating powerful stakeholders vis-à-vis centrality and the ability to control the network’s flow. An exploratory, comparative case study design was built by means of 58 interviews and 550 archival materials. Findings highlight international sports events are sparsely connected networks with power concentrated in the organizing committee, government, and venue stakeholders, who broker coordination with other stakeholders. In contrast, domestic sport event organizing committees appear more decentralized as coordinating actors: Sport organizations, sponsors, and community-based stakeholders emerged as highly connected, powerful stakeholders. Domestic event governance decentralization highlights a potential imbalance in stakeholder interests through network flow control by multiple actors, while the governments’ centrality in international events demonstrates not only mode-dependent salience but also visibility/reputational risks and jurisdictional responsibilities-based salience.

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One Nation, Two Teams: Repositioning the Toronto Blue Jays Among the Threat of a New Entrant

Keegan Dalal, Lindee Declercq, Megan C. Piché, Craig G. Hyatt, and Michael L. Naraine

While many teams face difficult decisions regarding their branding, this case emphasizes how external factors can dictate marketing strategies. The Montreal Expos returning to Major League Baseball poses many threats and opportunities for the Toronto Blue Jays. As a result, the Blue Jays must reconsider their use of national identity in their branding—and whether it is appropriate to transition from being Canada’s only team to now sharing the market with the Expos. Nevertheless, the Expos’ return to Major League Baseball provides the Blue Jays with an opportunity to explore new marketing strategies. Case participants are tasked with repositioning the Blue Jays’ marketing strategy in response to the Expos’ return.

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To Stream or Not to Stream? A Case of Social Media Management Within a Professional Sport Organization

Sarah Wymer, Michael L. Naraine, Ashleigh-Jane Thompson, and Andy J. Martin

This is a fictional case based on the actual management of a social media strategy that occurred in a professional sport organization in Queensland, Australia. The intention of the case is to explore a range of social media management themes such as live streaming, audience reach, fan engagement, and decision making as they apply to a sport organization. The case primarily focuses on social media live streaming (specifically Facebook Live) and aims to provide an understanding of live video posts in comparison with other post types (i.e., photo, video, text, and links). The case develops within the theoretical frameworks of relationship marketing, fan engagement, and social media, and is suitable for students learning about sport marketing, sport sponsorship, promotion and public relations, and other communication courses in sport management. Specifically, students are tasked with developing a range of potential strategies to support the lead character, Michael Battersby, in implementing live streaming within a social media strategy.

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Decision-Making Processes Used by Canadian National Sport Organization Boards: Differences Between Design Archetypes

Russell Hoye, Milena M. Parent, Ashley Thompson, Erik L. Lachance, Michael L. Naraine, Marijke Taks, and Benoit Séguin

This paper examines the decision-making role of Canadian national sport organization boards, identifies the processes used to facilitate decision making by these boards, and explores whether these elements differ between the various design archetypes that exist among these organizations. Forty-five semistructured interviews were conducted with board members and senior staff of 22 Canadian national sport organizations, and data were thematically analyzed. Findings indicate board members and senior staff focused on strategy as their primary role, along with control over other roles (e.g., providing advice and counsel or securing resources). Roles differed according to the organization’s design archetype. Our analysis showed clear differences between design archetypes in terms of how these the organizations used structural artifacts such as subcommittees to facilitate decision making, navigated decision rights between board members and paid staff, and adhered to the Carver policy governance model promoted for national sport organizations by Sport Canada.