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The Socialization of Teachers in Physical Education: Review and Recommendations for Future Works

K. Andrew R. Richards, Thomas J. Templin, and Kim Graber

Occupational socialization theory describes the acculturation, professional preparation, and organizational socialization of physical education teachers and addresses factors that contribute to their decisions and behaviors. Utilizing occupational socialization theory as a grounding framework, this paper summarizes research conducted on teacher socialization in physical education and provides recommendations for future research. Each of the three phases of socialization is reviewed as are related constructs. The paper concludes with a discussion of socialization into physical education more generally and addresses the limitations of the current body of literature. Future researchers are encouraged to continue using occupational socialization theory as a framework though which to understand the careers and pedagogical decisions of physical education teachers.

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Secondary Professional Socialization Through Professional Organizations: An Exploratory Study

K. Andrew R. Richards, Andrew D. Eberline, and Thomas J. Templin

Secondary professional socialization is a phase of occupational socialization theory that focuses on graduate education in preparation for a career in academia. Due to the need to present and publish research and make professional contacts, professional organizations likely serve an important socializing function during graduate education. The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand graduate students’ perspectives of participating in professional organizations. Participants included 16 health and physical education graduate students who shared their experiences in focus group interviews. Data were analyzed using constant comparison and inductive analysis. Results indicate graduate students become involved in professional organizations primarily due to faculty encouragement. Participants highlighted networking as a benefit of involvement, and viewed professional learning and opportunities to present research as important to their career development. Results are discussed through the lens of occupational socialization theory, and limitations and implications for graduate student training are shared.

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Recruiting Student Athletes: A Means-End Investigation of School-Choice Decision Making

David B. Klenosky, Thomas J. Templin, and Josh A. Troutmam

This paper reports the results of an empirical study that draws on a means-end perspective to examine the factors influencing the school choice decisions of collegiate student athletes. A sample of 27 NCAA Division I collegiate football players were questioned to identify the attributes that differentiated the school they selected from the others they had considered attending. The interviewing technique known as laddering was then used to link the salient attributes of the chosen school to the consequences and personal values important to the athlete. An analysis of the resulting data provided unique insight into the means-end relationships that underlie students' selection of competing athletic programs. A discussion of the study findings outlined the implications of this investigation and the means-end approach for future recruiting and research efforts.

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An Analysis of State Physical Education Policies

Bryan A. McCullick, Thomas Baker, Phillip D. Tomporowski, Thomas J. Templin, Karen Lux, and Tiffany Isaac

The purpose of this study was to analyze state school-based physical education (SBPE) policies’ text and the resulting legal implications. A textualist approach to the legal method of Statutory Interpretation framed the data analysis. Findings revealed the difficulty of determining with clarity a majority of PE statutes and it is probable that based on current wording, courts could not play a role in interpreting these statutes, thus leaving interpretation to educational authorities. Significant variability of how authorities interpret statutes increases the challenge of consistent interpretation or adherence to the NASPE Guidelines for Quality Physical Education and whether meaningful policy study can be conducted to determine if SBPE makes an impact.

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Another Decade of Qualitative Research in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education

Shelby E. Ison, Kevin Andrew Richards, Michael A. Hemphill, and Thomas J. Templin

Background: Over the past several decades, scholars have regularly reviewed qualitative research published in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, among other outlets, to understand the developing role of qualitative methods in physical education and sport pedagogy. In this review, the authors present a descriptive and thematic analysis of qualitative research articles published between 2009 and 2019, extending previous reviews. Methods: A total of 137 empirical articles were published that included a qualitative component (38.48%). This included purely qualitative studies (28.37%) as well as those using mixed methods (10.11%). Results: Descriptive results include analyses of article classifications, authorship, participants, theoretical/conceptual frameworks, qualitative methodologies, data collection methods, and data analysis and trustworthiness strategies. Inductive analysis of the 137 qualitative containing articles resulted in six themes and corresponding subthemes of research foci. Conclusions: Suggestions for future submissions to the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education are also presented.

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Factors Associated With High School Physical Education Teachers’ Adoption of a Supplemental Online Instructional System (iPE)

Chad M. Killian, Amelia Mays Woods, Kim C. Graber, and Thomas J. Templin

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with high school physical education (PE) teachers’ adoption of a supplemental online instructional system. Method: Semistructured, open-ended phone interviews with 28 high school PE teachers were used as the primary data collection method. All teachers were using or had used a supplemental online instructional system at the time of the study. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) guided the directed content analysis. Results: Four main categories were generated, including perceived programmatic, instructional, and inclusivity improvements; minimal personal and student usage effort; school and curriculum provider support facilitated use; and administrators’ dictated long-term use. Discussion/Conclusion: The results aligned well with the UTAUT and served to situate the theory within the secondary PE context. The participants’ perceptions and experiences were also contradictory to much of the current research on teachers’ technology adoption in PE and K–12 education, more generally.

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A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education from 1998 to 2008

Michael A. Hemphill, Andrew R. Richards, Thomas J. Templin, and Bonnie Tjeerdsma Blankenship

Previous reviews of research have documented the increasing use of qualitative inquiry in physical education. In this research note, the authors present a content analysis of qualitative research articles published between 1998 and 2008 in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE). A total of 110 empirical articles were published that included a qualitative component, 38.2% of those used mixed methods. Results include analyses of types of qualitative research, research focus, theoretical frameworks, data collection techniques, trustworthiness techniques, and participants. The Research Authorship Score revealed that qualitative research tends to rely on teams of researchers in the conduct of studies. By extending previous work, this study reveals that qualitative research continues to play a significant role in research on physical education.

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Understanding Differences in Role Stressors, Resilience, and Burnout in Teacher/Coaches and Non-Coaching Teachers

K. Andrew R. Richards, Thomas J. Templin, Chantal Levesque-Bristol, and Bonnie Tjeerdsma Blankenship

The constructs of role stressors, burnout, and resilience have been the topic of numerous research studies in physical education and education more generally. Specific to physical education, much effort has been devoted to the study of teacher/coach role conflict. However, no prior studies have examined how role stressors, burnout, and resilience experienced by teacher/coaches differ from what is experienced by noncoaching teachers. Using role theory as a guiding framework, this study sought to examine differences in role stressors, burnout, and resilience among teacher/coaches and noncoaching teachers from core (e.g., mathematics, language arts) and noncore (e.g., physical education, music) subjects. Analyses were conducted using 2 × 2 (coaching status × subject affiliation) Factorial ANOVAs. While some group differences are highlighted, overall the results suggest that there are more similarities than differences among teacher/coaches and noncoaching teachers. These findings suggest that it is not safe to assume that dual role teacher/coaches will always experience more role stress and burnout than noncoaching teachers. Additional research is needed to more fully understand the implications of being a dual role teacher/coach.

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Experiential Learning Through a Physical Activity Program for Children With Disabilities

K. Andrew R. Richards, Andrew D. Eberline, Sookhenlall Padaruth, and Thomas J. Templin

Service-learning has become a popular pedagogical tool to promote academic and civic learning. One form of service-learning provides physical activity for underrepresented community groups, including children with disabilities. Using experiential learning theory, the purpose of this descriptive case study was to evaluate college students’ experiences in a physical activity-based service learning program for children with disabilities. Through convenience sampling, 97 program participants (82 female, 15 male), most of whom were White (N = 85), were recruited for participation. Data included a pre- and postsurvey of civic learning, participant interviews, reflective journaling, and program observations. Qualitative data were analyzed using constant comparison and inductive analysis, and quantitative data were analyzed using Mixed ANOVAs. Results revealed that the program resulted in enhanced civic and academic learning. Themes included making a difference, academic and career connections, emotional and personal growth, and program reflection. Implications of the study and future directions for research are discussed.

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Associations Between Physical Activity and Gross Motor Skills in Parent–Child Dyads

Katherine Q. Scott-Andrews, Rebecca E. Hasson, Alison L. Miller, Thomas J. Templin, and Leah E. Robinson

This study examines the associations of physical activity and gross motor skills in parent–child dyads. Parent–child dyads (N = 61, 84% mothers, children aged 8–11 years) participated in this study. Anthropometrics were self-reported through Qualtrics. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers. Motor skills were measured through four skills: catch, kick, throw, and jump. These skills were assessed using process (i.e., performance criteria of the Test of Gross Motor Development-3) and product (i.e., catch percentage and jump distance) measures. A complete motor skill score was computed by standardizing both process and product scores and summing them. Correlation coefficients and ordinary least square regressions were computed to examine the associations of physical activity and motor skills. Parents’ and children’s moderate to vigorous physical activity were significantly associated (β = 0.30 ± 0.11; p = .008). Parents’ and children’s motor skills were significantly associated (β = 0.46 ± 0.18; p = .012). Understanding parent determinants can support effective interventions targeting children’s low physical activity levels and improving motor competence. Our results highlight the importance of parents’ physical activity and motor skills, which are significantly associated with those of their children. These parent factors may be a key consideration for effective family-based physical activity interventions.