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Psychological Skills Training with Community College Athletes: The UNIFORM Approach

Colleen M. Horn, Jenelle N. Gilbert, Wade Gilbert, and Dawn K. Lewis

The present study examined a 10-week psychological skills training (PST) intervention called UNIFORM (Johnson & Gilbert, 2004) with a community college softball team. The intervention was based on the transtheoretical model (Prochaska & Marcus, 1994). Results showed that the athletes learned the skills, enjoyed the intervention, and significantly increased their application of relaxation and goal setting during practice and their application of relaxation, imagery, and self-talk during competition as measured by the Test of Performance Strategies (Thomas, Murphy, & Hardy, 1999). Though there were some positive changes, decisional balance and self-efficacy scores (DB-PST, SE-PST; Leffingwell, Rider, & Williams, 2001) were not statistically significant. The UNIFORM approach enabled community college athletes to learn psychological skills and apply them during practice, competition, and in their everyday lives.

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College Athletic Directors’ Perceptions of Sport Psychology Consulting

Kelly A. Wilson, Jenelle N. Gilbert, Wade D. Gilbert, and Scott R. Sailor

Seventy-two college athletic directors (ADs) participated in a survey about (a) previous experience with sport psychology consultants (SPCs), (b) previous exposure to the field, and (c) attitudes toward sport psychology consulting. ADs were confused about appropriate training for SPCs, highlighted by the fact that 66.7% were unaware of any certification for SPCs. Although ADs’ attitudes toward SPCs did not differ based on previous experience with SPCs, there was a statistically significant difference between ADs who were aware of the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) and those who were unaware. Results demonstrate the need to educate potential employers regarding appropriate qualifications for SPCs. The discussion culminates with suggestions for future research and recommendations for enhancing effectiveness of outreach programs.

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Coaches’ Use of Positive Tactile Communication in Collegiate Basketball

Inge Milius, Wade D. Gilbert, Danielle Alexander, and Gordon A. Bloom

There is a growing body of research on positive tactile communication and its impact on athlete performance and team dynamics. The purpose of the present study was to examine the profile and perceived impact of positive tactile communication as a coaching strategy in a high-performance team sport setting. Participants were members of a successful American collegiate women’s basketball team comprising the head coach, associate head coach, and 16 student-athletes. Methods of data collection included systematic observation and focus groups. Positive tactile communication was perceived to be an effective coaching strategy for enhancing relationships and athlete performance. To our knowledge, this is the first study to include both quantitative and qualitative data from multiple coaches on the same team, as well as athlete perceptions of coaches’ strategic use of positive tactile communication.

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Building High Performing Coach-Athlete Relationships: The USOC’s National Team Coach Leadership Education Program (NTCLEP)

Phil Ferrar, Lillian Hosea, Miles Henson, Nadine Dubina, Guy Krueger, Jamie Staff, and Wade Gilbert

The purpose of the present article is to share the design and impact of a coach-athlete relationship coach education seminar. The seminar is part of the United States Olympic Committee’s (USOC) National Team Coach Leadership Education Program (NTCLEP). Development and delivery of the seminar is facilitated by The People Academy (www.people.academy). Impact results from participation in this seminar are drawn from coaches and athletes from USA Archery and USA Cycling. The article is organized into three sections. In the first section an overview of the coach-athlete relationship building component of the USOC’s high performance coach education program is provided. Two case summaries are then presented on the impact of the program on coach-athlete relationships and athlete performance. The third and final section is used to offer suggestions for future coach education initiatives and coaching strategies aimed at enhancing coach-athlete relationships.

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Long Term Program Development (LTPD): An Interdisciplinary Framework for Developing Athletes, Coaches, and Sport Programs

Mark Siwik, Alan Lambert, Doug Saylor, Rachael Bertram, Cara Cocchiarella, and Wade Gilbert

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Reviewing Original Research Articles Published in the International Sport Coaching Journal

Katherine E. Hirsch, Todd M. Loughead, Gordon A. Bloom, and Wade D. Gilbert

The purpose of this commentary is to provide a broad overview of the empirical research-based articles published in the International Sport Coaching Journal from its inception in 2014 through 2020. Data from 101 publications were collected and analyzed using Arksey and O’Malley’s six-stage framework for conducting scoping reviews. Data were extracted on the size and scope of research, populations and perspectives studied, and methodologies and data collection methods used. The results show that empirical research publications grew more prominent over time (i.e., 24.0% of 2014 publications vs. 58.1% of 2020 publications) compared with other publication types. The most commonly researched topics included coach development and coach behaviors. The participants most studied were male coaches, performance sport coaches, and adult sport coaches, featuring primarily European and North American coaches. The majority of studies used a qualitative methodology with the most common research designs being phenomenological and case studies. A variety of data collection methods were used that involved one-on-one interviews and questionnaires. Several recommendations are advanced to stakeholders, including strategies to promote racial and gender diversity and to collect and report demographic data on race and coaching experience.