The purpose was to determine whether publications pertaining to adapted physical activity (APA) pedagogy in the core serials from 1988 to 1998 adhere to library science laws. A bibliometric analysis was conducted on 770 articles in 259 serials selected from 4,130 serials initially identified in four databases (Article First, ERIC, Medline, Sport Discus). Results indicated that 1,720 authors have constructed the early APA pedagogy literature. Of these, only 11 contributed four or more articles. The scatter of APA pedagogy literature over four zones, with 4, 15, 64, and 176 journals in the zones, respectively, supports Bradford’s law of scattering. Price’s law was not supported because most authors contributed only one article. Most pedagogy articles (n = 184) were published in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, Physician and Sports Medicine, and Palaestra. Graduate education should include exposure to bibliometrics and collaboration with library and information science specialists.
John O’Connor, Ron French, Claudine Sherrill, and Garth Babcock
Lisa Silliman-French, Ron French, Claudine Sherrill, and Barbara Gench
The purpose was to determine the effectiveness of three feedback conditions (aversive tone, preferred music, and no feedback) on time-on-task of correct upper body postural alignment in adults with profound mental retardation (PMR). Participants were seven adults (3 males and 4 females), ages 25 to 34. A randomized multiple-treatment design with generalization and follow-up phases was used. Participants received three randomly assigned conditions each day for a total of 45 sessions over 15 days. Five of the participants increased time-on-task in response to preferred music, whereas two participants increased time-on-task in response to both aversive tone and preferred music. Friedman two-way analysis of variance indicated that music was significantly more effective than other conditions. It was concluded that preferred music feedback is, at least minimally, effective in improving time-on-task of upper body postural alignment of adults with PMR.
Peggy M. Roswal, Claudine Sherrill, and Glenn M. Roswal
This study compared the effectiveness of data based and creative dance pedagogies in relation to motor skill performance and self-concept of mentally retarded students. Subjects (N=35) were moderately mentally retarded males and females, ages 11 to 16 years, in special education classes. Their mean age was 12.88 years in the data based group and 13.47 years in the creative dance group. Excluding testing, the study lasted 8 weeks. Each group received 40 lessons of 30 minutes each. Data based pedagogy was based on the work of Dunn, Morehouse, and Dalke (1979), and creative dance pedagogy was based primarily on the work of Riordan (Fitt & Riordan, 1980). Pretest and posttest data were collected through administration of the Data Based Dance Skills Placement Test, selected subtests of the Cratty Six-Category Gross Motor Test, and the Martinek-Zaichkowsky Self-Concept Scale. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed no difference between pedagogies. The group means indicated improvement in dance skill performance but not in self-concept or body perception, balance, and gross and locomotor agility.
Joan M.S. Verderber, Terry L. Rizzo, and Claudine Sherrill
This study developed a theoretically-driven survey, using the theory of reasoned action (TRA), to give validity evidence about intentions of middle school children to work and play with children with severe disabilities in general physical education. Participants were students in a Southern California middle school. Survey development included student interviews to identify beliefs that guided item construction, a pilot study, and the revised survey. Data were collected on TRA constructs and demographic variables. Path analysis, applying stepwise multiple regression and analyses, showed that attitude, subjective norm, educational placement (mild disability), and grade were significant predictors of a favorable intention and explained 72% of the variation in intention. Factor analysis revealed four factors representing 57.6% of the variance.
Carol Pope, Claudine Sherrill, Jerry Wilkerson, and Jean Pyfer
This paper describes the sprint running of selected Class 6, 7, and 8 international-level athletes with cerebral palsy (CP), contrasts their biomechanical characteristics with those reported for nondisabled runners, and delineates discriminating biomechanical parameters among classes. Subjects included 17 male and female Class 6, 7, and 8 athletes with CP who competed in international competition and were finalists or semifinalists in sprint events. High speed films were taken, and data reduction was performed. It was concluded that (a) elite Class 6, 7, and 8 athletes with CP descriptively differ from findings reported in the nondisabled literature on variables of stride length, velocity, ratio of support to nonsupport time, time of forward swing, trunk angle, hip angle, angle of touchdown, and stride time (females only); (b) athletes with CP differ (right-side values only) between classes for hip range of motion, hip velocity, knee and elbow range of motion, and trunk angle average; and (c) distinguishing biomechanical characteristics exist between the more involved and noninvolved or less involved sides for hip velocity, angle of touchdown, and hip, knee, ankle, and shoulder range of motion.
James V. Mastro, Allen W. Burton, Marjorie Rosendahl, and Claudine Sherrill
Hierarchies of preference by elite athletes with impairments toward other athletes with impairments were examined by administering the Athletes With Impairments Attitude Survey (AWIAS) to 138 members of the United States Disabled Sports Team as they were traveling to the 1992 Paralympic Games. The AWIAS uses 12 statements concerning social and sport relationships to measure social distance from a particular impairment group. Five groups of athletes participated—athletes with amputations, cerebral palsy, dwarfism or les autres, paraplegia or quadriplegia, and visual impairment—with each participant filling out a separate survey for the four impairment groups other than his or her own. For all groups combined, the participants’ responses toward other impairment groups, ordered from most to least favorable attitudes, were amputations, les autres, para/quadriplegia, visual impairment, and cerebral palsy. The preference hierarchies for individual groups were very similar to this overall pattern.
L. Kristi Sayers, Jo E. Cowden, and Claudine Sherrill
The purpose of the study was to analyze parents’ perceptions of their participation in a university-directed, parent-implemented, home-based pediatric strength intervention program as (a) one approach to evaluating the effectiveness of a program conducted over a 4-year period with families of infants and toddlers with Down syndrome and (b) a means of deriving guidelines for future early intervention programs. Participants were 22 parents from 11 families of children with Down syndrome; the children ranged in age from 6 to 42 months. Participatory evaluation research, semistructured audio recorded home interviews, and qualitative content analysis were used. The results indicated that the parents (a) perceived themselves as being empowered to implement the program, (b) perceived their expectations about improved motor development of their children had been met, and (c) perceived the program was worthwhile. The parents’ perceptions provided meaningful evaluation data that enabled the development of guidelines for future pediatric strength intervention programs.
Samuel R. Hodge, Ronald Davis, Rebecca Woodard, and Claudine Sherrill
The purpose was to compare the effects of two practicum types (off campus and on campus) on physical education teacher education (PETE) students’ attitudes and perceived competence toward teaching school-aged students with physical disabilities or moderate-severe mental retardation. PETE students, enrolled in a 15-week introductory adapted physical education (APE) course and involved in eight sessions of either off-campus (n = 22) or on-campus (n = 15) practicum experiences, completed Rizzo’s (1993a) Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities-III (PEATID-III) two times. Analysis of pretest data revealed that groups were equated on gender, experience, attitude, and perceived competence. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA revealed no significant difference between practicum types on posttest attitude and perceived competence measures. Attitude scores did not differ significantly from pretest to posttest. Perceived competence improved significantly from pretest to posttest under both practicum types. Implications for professional preparation are discussed.
Cindy H.P. Sit, Koenraad J. Lindner, and Claudine Sherrill
The purpose was to examine sport participation (excluding physical education classes) of school-aged Chinese children with disabilities attending special schools in Hong Kong. A sample of 237 children, ages 9 to 19, attending 10 special schools in Hong Kong, responded to a sport participation questionnaire in individual interviews. Data were analyzed by gender, two school levels, and five disability types. Results relating to participation frequency and extent indicated that girls were significantly less active than boys. Children with physical disability, visual impairment, and mental disability were less active than children with hearing impairment and maladjustment. Children with different types of disabilities varied in their participation patterns and choices of physical activities as well as their motives for sport participation, nonparticipation, and withdrawal. We concluded that disability type is more related to children’s participation behaviors in sport and physical activities than to gender and school level.
Martin Kudláèek, Hana Válková, Claudine Sherrill, Bettye Myers, and Ron French
The purpose was to provide validity evidence for an attitude survey that will predict the intention of Czech prospective teachers to include students with physical disabilities in general physical education (GPE). Based on the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991, 2000), the Czech Attitude Toward Teaching Individuals with Physical Disabilities in Physical Education (ATIPDPE) contained statements of intention and of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs. Attitude was inferred from behavioral beliefs. Content validity evidence was established by experts in two countries and by pilot studies utilizing 96 university students to elicit accessible beliefs and intentions. Construct validity evidence was derived from data collected from 145 GPE and 47 adapted PE prospective teachers enrolled in three universities in the Czech Republic. Bivariate correlations, hierarchical regression analysis, and ANOVA examination of known group difference provided good validity evidence for the ATIPDPE. Alpha coefficients ranged from .71 to .94.