Search Results

You are looking at 31 - 40 of 55 items for

  • Author: Pedro C. Hallal x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Exposure to a Community-Wide Physical Activity Promotion Program and Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Aracaju, Brazil

Braulio C. Mendonça, Antônio C. Oliveira, José Jean O. Toscano, Alan G. Knuth, Thiago T. Borges, Deborah C. Malta, Danielle K. Cruz, and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

Evaluation studies of large scale physical activity promotion programs are rare in Latin America. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between various forms of exposure to Academia da Cidade (PAC), a professionally supervised intervention in Aracaju (Brazil), and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA).

Methods:

A population-based study including 2267 adults was carried out. LTPA was assessed using the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and a cut-off of 150 minutes per week was used in the analyses.

Results:

In fully adjusted models, having ever heard about PAC was related to an odds of 1.8 (95% CI 1.4−2.2) for reaching the 150-minutes per week LTPA threshold. Equivalent odds ratios were 1.6 (95% CI 1.1−2.3) for having ever seen a PAC class, 14.3 (95% CI 12.3−16.4) for current and 4.0 (95% CI 1.4−11.3) for past PAC participation.

Conclusion:

Different sources of exposure to PAC were significantly associated with LTPA, which may suggest that professionally-supervised community classes offered for free may be a successful alternative for promoting physical activity in Brazil. If PAC happens to be expanded to other Brazilian areas, intervention studies may be carried out to evaluate its effectiveness.

Restricted access

Physical Activity Advice: Short Report From a Population-Based Study in Brazil

Pedro C. Hallal, Pitágoras T. Machado, Giovâni F. Del Duca, Inácio C. Silva, Tales C. Amorim, Thiago T. Borges, Airton J. Rombaldi, Mario R. Azevedo, and Alan G. Knuth

Purpose:

To evaluate the prevalence of physical activity advice, the source of the information, and the types of recommendation in a population-based sample of adults living in South Brazil.

Methods:

Population-based study including 972 adults living in Pelotas, Brazil. The outcome variable was based on the following question: “Has anyone ever recommended you to practice physical activity”? If the answer was positive, we asked who was responsible for the prescription (an open question, which was categorized later) and which recommendation was done.

Results:

The prevalence of physical activity advice was 56.2% (95% CI 52.3−60.1). Physical activity advice was mostly done by physicians (92.5%). Walking was, by far, the most frequent recommendation. Females were more likely to receive advice for physical activity practice than males (OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.30−2.31). Age, economic level, body mass index and leisure-time physical activity were positively associated with physical activity advice, while self-reported health presented an inverse association with the outcome.

Conclusions:

The prevalence of physical activity advice was high in this sample, suggesting that the Brazilian health system is incorporating physical activity in its routine.

Restricted access

Leisure-Time Physical Activity Among Adult and Elderly Individuals in Brazil: A Countrywide Analysis

Fernando V. Siqueira, Luiz Augusto Facchini, Denise S. Silveira, Roberto X. Piccini, Elaine Tomasi, and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

No data on leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) are available in Brazil for a representative sample of the whole country. The current study describes LTPA levels of the Brazilian adult and elderly populations and explores its association with sex, age, and schooling.

Methods:

A countrywide household-based cross-sectional study was carried out, including separate samples of adult and elderly individuals from 23 states in Brazil selected through a multistage approach. LTPA was assessed using the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A cut-off point of 150 minutes per week was used.

Results:

12,402 adult and 6617 elderly individuals were interviewed in 100 cities. The proportion of individuals below the 150 minutes per week threshold in terms of LTPA was 82.6% (95% CI 81.9; 83.2) among the adults and 86.5% (95% CI 85.7; 87.3) among elderly individuals. Among adults, prevalence estimates were very consistent across regions. Elderly subjects living in states in the Northeast and North regions of the country were less active than those from the other regions. A clear positive dose-response association was observed between LTPA and schooling.

Conclusion:

Alarming rates of low levels of LTPA are found in Brazil, thus suggesting the need of urgent actions.

Free access

Remembering Steven N. Blair

Harold W. Kohl III, Loretta DiPietro, I-Min Lee, Ding Ding, Pedro C. Hallal, James R. Morrow Jr, and Russell R. Pate

Open access

Overall and Leisure-Time Physical Activity Among Brazilian Adults: National Survey Based on the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire

Inácio Crochemore M. da Silva, Grégore I. Mielke, Andréa D. Bertoldi, Paulo Sergio Dourado Arrais, Vera Lucia Luiza, Sotero Serrate Mengue, and Pedro C. Hallal

Background: To describe overall physical activity prevalence measured by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire as well as inequalities in leisure-time physical activity among Brazilian adults (15 y and older). Methods: Data from the Brazilian Survey on Medicine Access, Utilization, and Rational Use of Medicines were analyzed. The study was carried out between September 2013 and February 2014. Physical activity was measured through Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and classified according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Additional analysis determined the contribution of each physical activity domain to the total amount of physical activity. Inequalities in terms of sex, age, and socioeconomic position were explored. Results: About one-third of the participants (37.1%; 95% confidence interval, 35.5–38.8) were physically inactive. Work-based activities were responsible for 75.7% of the overall physical activity. The prevalence of participants achieving physical activity guidelines considering only leisure-time activities was 17.8% (95% confidence interval, 16.7–19.2). Females and older participants were less active than their counterparts for both overall and leisure-time physical activity; socioeconomic status was positively associated to leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions: Major overall physical activity is attributed to work-related physical activity. Leisure-time physical activity, a key domain for public health, presents important gender and socioeconomic inequalities.

Restricted access

Worldwide Surveillance, Policy, and Research on Physical Activity and Health: The Global Observatory for Physical Activity

Andrea Ramirez Varela, Michael Pratt, Kenneth Powell, I-Min Lee, Adrian Bauman, Gregory Heath, Rafaela Costa Martins, Harold Kohl, and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

The Global Observatory for Physical Activity (GoPA!) was launched in response to the physical inactivity pandemic. The aim of this article is to present current information about surveillance, policy, and research on physical activity (PA) and health worldwide.

Methods:

Information was collected for 217 countries. For 139 of these nations we identified a contact who confirmed information’s accuracy and completeness. Associations were calculated among surveillance, policy and research categories.

Results:

Of the 139 countries, 90.6% reported having completed 1 or more PA survey, but less than one-third had 3 or more. 106 included PA on a national plan, but only one-quarter of these were PA-specific. At least 1 peer reviewed publication was identified for 63.3% of the countries. Positive associations (P < .001) were found between research and policy (ρ = 0.35), research and surveillance (ρ = 0.41), and surveillance and policy (ρ = 0.31). Countries with a standalone plan were more likely to have surveillance. Countries with more research were more likely to have a standalone plan and surveillance.

Conclusions:

Surveillance, policy, and research indicators were positively correlated, suggesting that action at multiple levels tends to stimulate progress in other areas. Efforts to expand PA-related surveillance, policy, and research in lower income countries are needed.

Restricted access

An Overview of Physical Activity Research Evolution in Africa: The Global Observatory for Physical Activity—GoPA!

Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Andrea Ramirez Varela, Estelle V. Lambert, Eduardo Ribes Kohn, Pedro C. Hallal, and Michael Pratt

Objective: To describe the evolution of physical activity (PA) research in Africa, examine income and gender inequalities, and discuss future possibilities. Methods: A secondary analyses of the Global Observatory for Physical Activity data on PA research in Africa (1950–2019). Results: We identified 514 PA articles from 47 African countries in the past 70 years. Majority (83.1%) of the articles were published between 2012 and 2019. Fifteen countries had no publications. Six countries (South Africa [n = 156], Nigeria [n = 85], Ethiopia [n = 44], Ghana [n = 41], Kenya [n = 39], and Cameroon [n = 20]) accounted for about 75% of the publications. Most articles were observational (92.4%), single-country studies (78.4%), with male first (58.4%) and last authors (68%), and were classified as surveillance studies (45.1%). Few studies addressed interventions (5.8%) and policy (3.5%) or used device-based PA measurement (14.0%). The number of articles per country was positively related to human population level (r = .552, P = .000) and gross domestic product % spent on research and development (r = .301, P = .040). The publication rate per 100,000 people was positively related with the human development index (r = .349, P = .016) and negatively with the gender inequality index (r = −.360, P = .019). Conclusions: Our results provide an overview and status of PA research in Africa, highlighting country differences and gender inequalities in authorship. The findings may be used to benchmark the evolution of research in the region and to inform areas for improvement. There is an urgent need for more PA interventions and policy studies in Africa.

Restricted access

Overweight/Obesity and Physical Fitness Among Children and Adolescents

Samuel Carvalho Dumith, Virgílio Viana Ramires, Matheus Alves Souza, Daniel Souza Moraes, Fabrício Godoy Petry, Eduardo Soldera Oliveira, Sandro Viana Ramires, and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

Physical fitness is strongly associated with several positive health indicators among adolescents. However, its association with body mass index status is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to explore the association between overweight/obesity and physical fitness among children and adolescents.

Methods:

The design consisted of a cross-sectional study comprising 519 Brazilian students age 7 to 15 years. BMI status was assessed according to sex- and age-specific growth charts. Physical fitness was assessed using 8 tests: sit-and-reach, stationary long jump, 1-minute curl-up, modified pull-up, medicine-ball throw, 9-minute run, 20-m run, and 4-m shuttle-run.

Results:

Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 24% and 12%, respectively. Boys performed better than girls in all tests, except flexibility. Normal weight students performed better than overweight and obese students in all tests, except the sit-and-reach and the medicine-ball throw. Cardiorespiratory fitness had the strongest association with BMI status. The prevalence of obese subjects classified as “most fit” was less than 10%.

Conclusions:

Higher values of body mass index were associated with declines in physical fitness, independent of age. The majority of obese children and adolescents and almost a half of those overweight were classified in the third tertile of physical fitness (least fit).

Restricted access

Methods and Participant Characteristics of a Randomized Intervention to Promote Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Among Brazilian High School Students: The Saude na Boa Project

Markus V. Nahas, Mauro V. G. de Barros, Maria Alice A. de Assis, Pedro C. Hallal, Alex A. Florindo, and Lisandra Konrad

Background:

A cross-cultural, randomized study was proposed to observe the effects of a school-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among high school students in 2 cities from different regions in Brazil: Recife and Florianopolis. The objective of this article is to describe the methodology and subjects enrolled in the project.

Methods:

Ten schools from each region were matched and randomized into intervention and control conditions. A questionnaire and anthropometry were used to collect data in the first and last month of the 2006 school year. The sample (n = 2155 at baseline; 55.7% females; 49.1% in the experimental group) included students 15 to 24 years, attending nighttime classes. The intervention focused on simple environmental/organizational changes, diet and physical activity education, and personnel training.

Results:

The central aspects of the intervention have been implemented in all 10 intervention schools. Problems during the intervention included teachers’ strikes in both sites and lack of involvement of the canteen owners in schools.

Conclusions:

The Saude na Boa study provides evidence that public high schools in Brazil represent an important environment for health promotion. Its design and simple measurements increase the chances of it being sustained and disseminated to similar schools in Brazil.

Free access

Shaping Policy and Practice: Analyzing the Reach of Highly Cited and High Altmetrics Publications for Broader Impact on Physical Activity

Andrea Ramírez Varela, Natalicio Serrano, Juliana Mejía Grueso, Anita Nguyen, Deborah Salvo, Ross C. Brownson, Adrian Bauman, Rodrigo Reis, Pedro Hallal, and Michael Pratt

Background: A significant gap remains between the availability of physical activity (PA) evidence-based interventions and their application in real-world settings in policy and practice areas. This study aims to describe highly cited and high altmetrics publications in PA research and explore their impact on PA policy and practice. Methods: Mixed-methods sequential explanatory study including the identification and description of the top highly cited and high altmetrics PA publications from the last 10 years (including study design, population, type of PA study, number of citations, and altmetrics score), and interviews with key informants regarding research dissemination and implications on PA policy and practice. Results: When considering publication type, the most frequent highly cited publications were health consequences (40%, altmetrics = 42%), measurement/trends (23%, altmetrics = 10%), and correlates/determinants (21%, altmetrics = 26%) studies. They were predominantly cross-sectional (50%, altmetrics = 28%), systematic reviews (38%, altmetrics = 18%), and longitudinal studies (8%, altmetrics = 37%). All authors who participated in the interviews agreed that the most important factors in disseminating findings and influencing PA policy and practice were the published peer-reviewed manuscript itself, the reputation of the journal, the communication strategy, and the use of online platforms. Conclusions: To have a real-world influence on PA policy and practice, it is not enough to publish the results in scientific journals and participate in media outreach. To successfully involve policymakers and communities in appropriating the evidence and evaluating the extent to which these findings affect policy and practice outcomes, it is critical to lead co-creation, co-dissemination, advocacy, and capacity building efforts.