Most hormonal agents used for nonmedical purposes in athletes have legitimate medical uses. This review introduces each compound by its pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, and legitimate medical use and reviews information on its abuse. Human growth hormone is presently available in virtually unlimited quantities due to its production by recombinant DNA technology. Its use in athletes is considered for its muscle-building, fat-depleting properties. Erythropoietin is a kidney hormone that increases red cell mass. It is used for renal dialysis patients to avoid blood transfusions. Its use in athletes is to raise red blood cell mass in an attempt to augment maximal oxygen capacity and the ability to do endurance work. Human chorionic gonadotropin has the biological activity of luteinizing hormone to increase testosterone synthesis and to maintain (partially) testicular volume when exogenous androgens are taken. Clenbuterol is a beta2 adrenergic agonist with muscle-building properties that are seemingly specific to striated muscle; clenbuterol may cause reduction in body fat.
Alan D. Rogol
Randy J. Schmitz, David E. Martin, David H. Perrin, Ali Iranmanesh, and Alan D. Rogol
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of interferential current (IFC) on perceived pain and serum Cortisol levels in subjects with delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). DOMS was induced in 10 subjects through repeated eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors. Forty-eight hours later subjects were evaluated. Starting at t = 0:00, blood samples were withdrawn from a superficial vein every 5 min for 65 min. At t = 0:05, subjects received IFC of 10 bps or IFC of 100 bps. Perceived pain levels were evaluated prior to catheter insertion and at t = 0:35, 0:50, and 0:65. Two mixed-model analyses of variance revealed a significant decrease in perceived pain scores across time for both treatment groups but no significant difference in serum Cortisol for the two groups. It was concluded that IFC of high and low beat frequency is effective in controlling the pain of DOMS but does not elicit a generalized stress response as indexed by increasing serum Cortisol levels.