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  • Author: Anh-Dung Nguyen x
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Sara L. Arena, Kelsey McLaughlin, Anh-Dung Nguyen, James M. Smoliga, and Kevin R. Ford

Athletic individuals may differ in body segment inertial parameter (BSIP) estimates due to differences in body composition, and this may influence calculation of joint kinetics. The purposes of this study were to (1) compare BSIPs predicted by the method introduced by de Leva1 with DXA-derived BSIPs in collegiate female soccer players, and (2) examine the effects of these BSIP estimation methods on joint moment and power calculations during a drop vertical jump (DVJ). Twenty female NCAA Division I soccer players were recruited. BSIPs of the shank and thigh (mass, COM location, and radius of gyration) were determined using de Leva’s method and analysis of whole-body DXA scans. These estimates were used to determine peak knee joint moments and power during the DVJ. Compared with DXA, de Leva’s method located the COM more distally in the shank (P = .008) and more proximally in the thigh (P < .001), and the radius of gyration of the thigh to be further from the thigh COM (P < .001). All knee joint moment and power measures were similar between methods. These findings suggest that BSIP estimation may vary between methods, but the impact on joint moment calculations during a dynamic task is negligible.

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Justin P. Waxman, Kevin R. Ford, Anh-Dung Nguyen, and Jeffrey B. Taylor

Vertical stiffness may contribute to lower-extremity injury risk; however, it is unknown whether athletes with different stiffness levels display differences in biomechanics. This study compared differences in biomechanics between female athletes (n = 99) with varying stiffness levels during a repetitive, single-leg, vertical hopping task. Vertical stiffness was calculated as the ratio of peak vertical ground-reaction force to maximum center-of-mass displacement. Tertiles were established using stiffness values, and separate 1-way ANOVAs were used to evaluate between-group differences. Stance times decreased, and flight times, ground-reaction force, and stiffness increased, from the low- to high-stiffness group (P < .050). The high-stiffness group displayed: (1) greater lateral trunk flexion (P = .009) and lesser hip adduction (P = .022) at initial ground contact compared to the low- and moderate-stiffness groups, respectively; (2) lesser peak hip adduction compared to the low-stiffness group (P = .040); (3) lesser lateral trunk-flexion (P = .046) and knee-flexion (P = .010) excursion compared to the moderate- and low-stiffness groups, respectively; and (4) greater peak hip-flexion (P = .001), ankle-dorsiflexion (P = .002), and ankle-eversion (P = .038) moments compared to the low-stiffness group. A wide range of variability in stiffness exists within a relatively homogenous population. Athletes with varying stiffness levels display biomechanical differences that may help identify the potential mechanism(s) by which stiffness contributes to injury risk.

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Kevin R. Ford, Anh-Dung Nguyen, Eric J. Hegedus, and Jeffrey B. Taylor

Virtual environments with real-time feedback can simulate extrinsic goals that mimic real life conditions. The purpose was to compare jump performance and biomechanics with a physical overhead goal (POG) and with a virtual overhead goal (VOG). Fourteen female subjects participated (age: 18.8 ± 1.1 years, height: 163.2 ± 8.1 cm, weight 63.0 ± 7.9 kg). Sagittal plane trunk, hip, and knee biomechanics were calculated during the landing and take-off phases of drop vertical jump with different goal conditions. Repeated-measures ANOVAs determined differences between goal conditions. Vertical jump height displacement was not different during VOG compared with POG. Greater hip extensor moment (P < .001*) and hip angular impulse (P < .004*) were found during VOG compared with POG. Subjects landed more erect with less magnitude of trunk flexion (P = .002*) during POG compared with VOG. A virtual target can optimize jump height and promote increased hip moments and trunk flexion. This may be a useful alternative to physical targets to improve performance during certain biomechanical testing, screening, and training conditions.