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Acute and Short-Term Response to Different Loading Conditions During Resisted Sprint Training

Beatriz Bachero-Mena, Miguel Sánchez-Moreno, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, and Borja Sañudo

Purpose: To analyze the acute and short-term physical and metabolic responses to resisted sprint training with 5 different loading conditions (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% body mass). Methods: Fifteen male participants performed 8 × 20-m sprints with 2-minute rests between sprints with 5 different loading conditions. Subjects performed a battery of tests (creatine kinase and lactate concentrations, countermovement jump, 20-m sprint, and isokinetic knee extension and flexion contractions) at 3 different time points (preexercise [PRE], postexercise [POST], and 24-h postexercise [POST24H]). Results: Results revealed significant increases in blood lactate for all loading conditions; however, as sled loadings increased, higher blood lactate concentrations and increments in sprint times during the training session were observed. Significant increases in creatine kinase concentration were observed from PRE to POST24H for all loading conditions. Concerning physical performance, significant decreases in countermovement-jump height from PRE to POST were found for all loading conditions. In addition, significant decreases in 20-m sprint performance from PRE to POST were observed for 0% (P = .05) and 80% (P = .02). No significant differences with PRE were observed for the physical-performance variables at POST24H, except for 20% load, which induced a significant decrease in mean power during knee flexion (P = .03). Conclusions: These results suggest that the higher the load used during resisted sprint training, the higher the physical-performance impairments and metabolic response produced, although all loading conditions led to a complete recovery of sprint performance at POST24H.

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Assessment of Osteogenic Exercise Efficacy via Bone Turnover Markers in Premenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Horacio Sanchez-Trigo, Wolfgang Kemmler, Gustavo Duque, and Borja Sañudo

Assessing bone’s response to physical activity interventions is challenging. This randomized controlled trial investigates if changes in bone turnover markers can offer an early evaluation of a physical activity intervention’s effectiveness in improving bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal women. Participants in the intervention group (n = 27, with 24 completing the trial) were instructed to walk at least 10,000 steps every day on a brisk walk and to execute 60 jumps daily, each surpassing 4g of acceleration, using an accelerometer-based wearable device. Meanwhile, the control group (n = 26, with 18 completing the trial) continued with their usual lifestyle. Bone turnover markers, comprising of C-terminal telopeptide of Type I collagen, procollagen Type 1 N-terminal propeptide, and total osteocalcin (carboxylated and undercarboxylated) were measured at baseline and midway through the intervention (3 months). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans of the hip and lumbar spine were conducted at baseline and the end of the intervention (6 months) to estimate BMD. Analysis of covariance exhibited significant differences between groups in procollagen Type 1 N-terminal propeptide (−6.74 μg/L, p = .023) and C-terminal telopeptide of Type I collagen (−83 ng/L, p = .043) after 3 months, and in femoral neck BMD (+0.024 g/cm2, p = .016), total hip BMD (+0.036 g/cm2, p = .004), and lumbar spine BMD (+0.026 g/cm2, p = .020) after 6 months. A significant correlation (r = −.73; p < .001) was detected between reductions in C-terminal telopeptide of Type I collagen and increases in femoral neck BMD. In conclusion, this intervention improved BMD in premenopausal women, with bone turnover markers potentially useful for early intervention assessment, though further research is needed.

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Effects of a 10-Week In-Season Eccentric-Overload Training Program on Muscle-Injury Prevention and Performance in Junior Elite Soccer Players

Moisés de Hoyo, Marco Pozzo, Borja Sañudo, Luis Carrasco, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Sergio Domínguez-Cobo, and Eduardo Morán-Camacho

Purpose:

To analyze the effect of an eccentric-overload training program (ie, half-squat and leg-curl exercises using flywheel ergometers) with individualized load on muscle-injury incidence and severity and performance in junior elite soccer players.

Methods:

Thirty-six young players (U-17 to U-19) were recruited and assigned to an experimental (EXP) or control group (CON). The training program consisted of 1 or 2 sessions/wk (3–6 sets with 6 repetitions) during 10 wk. The outcome measured included muscle injury (incidence per 1000 h of exposure and injury severity) and performance tests (countermovement jump [CMJ], 10-m and 20-m sprint test).

Results:

Between-groups results showed a likely (ES: 0.94) lower number of days of absence per injury and a possible decrement of incidence per 1000 h of match play in EXP than in CON. Regarding muscle performance, a substantial better improvement (likely to very likely) was found in 20-m sprint time (ES: 0.37), 10-m flying-sprint time (ES: 0.77), and CMJ (ES: 0.79) for EXP than for CON. Within-group analysis showed an unclear effect in each variable in CON. Conversely, substantial improvements were obtained in CMJ (ES: 0.58), 20-m sprint time (ES: 0.32), 10-m flying-sprint time (ES: 0.95), and injury severity (ES: 0.59) in EXP. Furthermore, a possible decrement in total injury incidence was also reported in EXP.

Conclusions:

The eccentric-based program led to a reduction in muscle-injury incidence and severity and showed improvements in common soccer tasks such as jumping ability and linear-sprinting speed.