The responses to supramaximal exercise testing have been traditionally analyzed by means of standard parametric and nonparametric statistics. Unfortunately, these statistical approaches do not allow insight into the pattern of variation of a given parameter over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if the application of dynamic factor analysis (DFA) allowed discriminating different patterns of power output (PO), during supramaximal exercise, in two groups of children engaged in competitive sports: swimmers and soccer players. Data derived from Wingate testing were used in this study. Analyses were performed on epochs (30 s) of upper and lower body PO obtained from twenty two healthy boys (11 swimmers and 11 soccer players) age 11–12 years old. DFA revealed two distinct patterns of PO during Wingate. Swimmers tended to attain their peak PO (upper and lower body) earlier than soccer players. As importantly, DFA showed that children with a given pattern of upper body PO tend to perform similarly during lower body exercise.
Paula Marta Bruno, Fernando Duarte Pereira, Renato Fernandes, and Gonçalo Vilhena de Mendonça
Lore Metz, Laurie Isacco, Kristine Beaulieu, S. Nicole Fearnbach, Bruno Pereira, David Thivel, and Martine Duclos
Background: While the popularity of aquatic physical activities continues to grow among women, the effects on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite control remain unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of water temperature during aqua-cycling session on EE, rate of perceived exertion, energy intake, appetite sensations, and food reward in healthy premenopausal women. Methods: Participants completed three experimental sessions, in the postprandial condition, in a randomized order: a land control session (CON), an aqua-cycling session in 18 °C (EXO18), and an aqua-cycling session in 27 °C (EXO27). The EE, food intake, appetite sensations, and food reward were investigated for each condition. Results: EXO18 induced a significant increase in EE (p < .001) and oxygen consumption (p < .01) compared with EXO27. The carbohydrate oxidation was higher in EXO18 session compared with EXO27 and CON (p < .05 and p < .001, respectively). While fat oxidation was higher in exercise sessions compared with CONT (p < .01), no difference was observed between EXO18 and EXO27. Exercise sessions did not alter absolute energy intake session but induced a decrease in relative energy intake (p < .001) and in hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption compared with CON (p < .001). The authors also show here that cold-water exposure can increase EE while rate of perceived exertion is lower at the end of exercise session compared with same exercise at 27 °C (p < .05).Conclusion: An exposure to a moderately cold-water during aqua-cycling is an efficient strategy to promote increased EE and decreased hunger, which may be effective for energy balance management in healthy premenopausal women.
Christiano Robles Rodrigues Alves, Bruno Gualano, Pollyana Pereira Takao, Paula Avakian, Rafael Mistura Fernandes, Diego Morine, and Monica Yuri Takito
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute aerobic and strength exercises on selected executive functions. A counterbalanced, crossover, randomized trial was performed. Forty-two healthy women were randomly submitted to three different conditions: (1) aerobic exercise, (2) strength exercise, and (3) control condition. Before and after each condition, executive functions were measured by the Stroop Test and the Trail Making Test. Following the aerobic and strength sessions, the time to complete the Stroop “non-color word” and “color word” condition was lower when compared with that of the control session. The performance in the Trail Making Test was unchanged. In conclusion, both acute aerobic and strength exercises improve the executive functions. Nevertheless, this positive effect seems to be task and executive function dependent.
Pauline Manon Genin, Céline Lambert, Benjamin Larras, Bruno Pereira, Jean-François Toussaint, Julien Steven Baker, Angelo Tremblay, David Thivel, and Martine Duclos
Background: The French National Observatory for Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors conducted a national survey aiming to evaluate the potential effects of confinement on the population’s physical activity levels and sedentary behaviors. Methods: In close collaboration with the French Ministry of Sports and a selected expert committee, 3 different questionnaires investigating 3 subgroup populations were included in the survey: (1) children, (2) adolescents, and (3) adults. Results: Forty-two percentage of children, 58.7% of adolescents, 36.4% of adults, and 39.2% of older people had reduced physical activity levels. Particularly, active transportation and endurance practices showed a significant decrease, while domestic, muscular strengthening, and flexibility activities increased. Sitting time and screen time increased, respectively, in 36.3% and 62.0% of children, 25.5% and 69.0% in adolescents, 24.6% and 41.0% in adults, and 36.1% and 32.1% in seniors. Conclusion: The COVID-19 confinement period led to important modifications in individual movement behaviors at all ages, particularly favoring decreased physical activity and increased sedentariness. These findings suggest that the authors need to inform and encourage people to maintain and improve their physical activities and to change their sedentary time habits during postconfinement and during the period of a potential future lockdown.
Julie Masurier, Marie-Eve Mathieu, Stephanie Nicole Fearnbach, Charlotte Cardenoux, Valérie Julian, Céline Lambert, Bruno Pereira, Martine Duclos, Yves Boirie, and David Thivel
There is a growing interest regarding the effect of exercise on appetite and energy intake in youth. While the role of exercise intensity has been a primary focus of study, the effect of exercise duration on subsequent food intake has not been fully examined in obese adolescents. On three separate mornings in a randomly assigned order, obese adolescent girls (n = 20) aged 12–15 years old were asked to perform a rest session (control, CON) or two cycling sessions for 20 (EX20) or 40 min (EX40) set at their ventilatory threshold. Absolute and relative energy intake were measured from an ad libitum lunch meal 30 min after rest or exercise and appetite feelings assessed using visual analogue scales throughout the day. Hunger, satiety, and prospective food consumption were not significantly different between conditions. Absolute energy intake (kcal) did not differ between conditions, while relative energy intake on EX40 (571 ± 381 kcal) was significantly lower than during CON (702 ± 320 kcal; p < .05) and EX20 (736 ± 457 kcal; p < .05). Fat ingestion (in grams) was significantly lower on CON (7.8 ± 3.2 g) compared with EX20 (10.3 ± 4.6 g; p < .01). Protein intake (in grams) was higher on EX20 (37.0 ± 16.6 g) compared with both CON (29.5 ± 11.7 g; p < .01) and EX40 (33.1 ± 10.9 g; p < .05). However, the percentage of total energy derived from each macronutrient was not different between conditions. Obese adolescent girls do not compensate for an acute bout of exercise set at their ventilatory threshold by increasing energy intake, regardless of the exercise duration.
Luiza Isnardi Cardoso Ricardo, Alan G. Knuth, Bruno Pereira Nunes, Pedro C. Hallal, Leonardo Pozza Santos, Jenifer Harter, Débora da Cruz Payão Pellegrini, and Inácio Crochemore-Silva
Background: This study aims to investigate inequalities in leisure-time physical activity (PA) practice amid the COVID-19 pandemic in a southern Brazilian city. Methods: Four repeated population-based surveys were carried out. PA was collected using a questionnaire proposed by the authors and an adapted version of the leisure-time section of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The sociodemographic variables were sex, age, skin color, and education level. The participants also answered questions regarding social distancing measures compliance. Descriptive analyses based on proportions and their respective P values for categorical variables were presented. The chi-square test for heterogeneity and linear trend was used. Results: The sample is composed of 1556 individuals (66.1% female). Overall, between rounds 1 and 2, PA prevalence declined, followed by a gradual increase thereafter. PA practice during the pandemic was higher among men, individuals with higher education level, and individuals with white skin color in all rounds. In rounds 2, 3, and 4, PA was lower among individuals who were practicing more social distancing. Conclusion: To tackle the PA inequalities, policymakers and stakeholders need to confront disparities, defending greater availability of public policies that are attentive to inequalities, especially regarding gender, skin color, and educational level, to promote PA as a human right.
Bruno Luiz Souza Bedo, Guilherme Manna Cesar, Renato Moraes, Fábio Pamplona Mariano, Luiz Henrique Palucci Vieira, Vitor Luiz Andrade, and Paulo Roberto Pereira Santiago
Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament ruptures generally occur during unanticipated sidestep cutting maneuvers when athletes have their visual attention focused on the opponent. The authors investigated the influence of uncertainty related to the side to perform the sidestep cutting maneuver on knee kinematics of female handball athletes. A total of 31 female handball athletes performed the sidestep cutting maneuver during anticipated and uncertain conditions. During the uncertain condition, visual cues indicated the direction of the reactive sidestep cutting maneuver. Between-condition differences were compared using the Student t test for paired samples calculated with statistical parametric mapping. Lower knee flexion angle was detected during the uncertain condition compared with the anticipated condition for the nondominant limb (0%–8% of the sidestep cycle). Knee abduction was larger during the uncertain condition for both the dominant (15%–41% of the sidestep cycle) and nondominant (0%–18% of the sidestep cycle) limbs compared with the anticipated condition. The nondominant leg showed higher knee abduction (36%–68% of the sidestep cycle) during the uncertain condition compared with the anticipated condition. The athletes’ approach velocity was slower during the uncertain condition. The uncertain condition impacted knee kinematics and potentially positioned the joint at greater risk of injury by decreasing the flexion angle in the nondominant leg and increasing the joint valgus bilaterally.
David Thivel, Pauline Genin, Alicia Fillon, Marwa Khammassi, Johanna Roche, Kristine Beaulieu, Graham Finlayson, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Martine Duclos, Angelo Tremblay, Bruno Pereira, and Lore Metz
Background: While mental work has been shown to favor overconsumption, the present study compared the effect of a cognitive task alone, followed by acute exercise, or performed on a cycling desk, on short-term food intake and appetite in adults. Methods: A total of 19 normal-weight adults randomly completed: resting session (CON), 30-minute cognitive task (CT), 30-minute cognitive task followed by a 15-minute high-intensity interval exercise bout (CT–EX), and 30-minute cognitive task performed on a cycling desk (CT-CD). Energy expenditure was estimated (heart rate–workload relationship), and energy intake (EI; ad libitum) and appetite (visual analog scales) were assessed. Results: Energy expenditure was higher in CT-EX (P < .001) compared with the other conditions and in CT-CD compared with CON and CT (P < .01). EI was higher in CON (P < .05) and CT-CD compared with CT (P < .01). Relative EI was higher in CON compared with CT (P < .05) and lower in CT-EX compared with CT, CT-CD, and CON (all Ps < .001). Area under the curve desire to eat was higher in CON compared with CT (P < .05) and CT-EX (P < .01). Area under the curve prospective food consumption was higher in CON compared with CT-EX (P < .01). Overall composite appetite score was not different between conditions. Conclusion: While cycling desks are recommended to break up sedentary time, the induced increase in energy expenditure might not be enough to significantly reduce overall short-term relative EI after mental work.