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Validity and Reliability of the Omron HJ-303 Tri-Axial Accelerometer-Based Pedometer

Jeremy A. Steeves, Brian M. Tyo, Christopher P. Connolly, Douglas A. Gregory, Nyle A. Stark, and David R. Bassett

Background:

This study compared the validity of a new Omron HJ-303 piezoelectric pedometer and 2 other pedometers (Sportline Traq and Yamax SW200).

Methods:

To examine the effect of speed, 60 subjects walked on a treadmill at 2, 3, and 4 mph. Twenty subjects also ran at 6, 7, and 8 mph. To test lifestyle activities, 60 subjects performed front-back-side-side stepping, elliptical machine and stair climbing/descending. Twenty others performed ballroom dancing. Sixty participants completed 5 100-step trials while wearing 5 different sets of the devices tested device reliability. Actual steps were determined using a hand tally counter.

Results:

Significant differences existed among pedometers (P < .05). For walking, the Omron pedometers were the most valid. The Sportline overestimated and the Yamax underestimated steps (P < .05). Worn on the waist or in the backpack, the Omron device and Sportline were valid for running. The Omron was valid for 3 activities (elliptical machine, ascending and descending stairs). The Sportline overestimated all of these activities, and Yamax was only valid for descending stairs. The Omron and Yamax were both valid and reliable in the 100-step trials.

Conclusions:

The Omron HJ-303, worn on the waist, appeared to be the most valid of the 3 pedometers.

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The Influence of Risk Perceptions and Efficacy Beliefs on Leisure-Time Physical Activity During Pregnancy

Christopher P. Connolly, James M. Pivarnik, Lanay M. Mudd, Deborah L. Feltz, Rebecca A. Schlaff, Mark G. Lewis, Robert M. Silver, and Maria K. Lapinski

Background:

Pregnancy risk perceptions and physical activity efficacy beliefs may facilitate or impede pregnancy leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). We examined the separate and joint influence of these variables on LTPA behavior among pregnant women.

Methods:

Pregnant women (n = 302) completed a survey containing questions on LTPA efficacy beliefs and behavior, as well as pregnancy risk perceptions with respect to the health of the unborn baby. As stipulated by the Risk Perception Attitude (RPA) Framework, 4 attitudinal groups were created: Responsive (High Risk+High Efficacy), Proactive (Low+High), Avoidant (High+Low), and Indifferent (Low+Low). Moderate LTPA and vigorous LTPA were dichotomized for study analyses.

Results:

A total of 82 women (27.2%) met the moderate physical activity guideline and 90 women (30.1%) performed any vigorous LTPA. Responsive and proactive pregnant women (those with high efficacy) were most likely to meet the moderate guideline and participate in vigorous LTPA. Hierarchical logistic regression did not reveal an interactive effect of pregnancy risk perceptions and LTPA efficacy beliefs for meeting the moderate guideline (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.66–1.36) or any vigorous LTPA participation (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.86–2.29).

Conclusions:

LTPA efficacy beliefs appear important in facilitating greater levels of pregnancy LTPA. Significant interactive effects between pregnancy risk perceptions and LTPA efficacy beliefs were not found.