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Association Between Aerobic Fitness and High Blood Pressure in Adolescents in Brazil: Evidence for Criterion-Referenced Cut-Points

Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Mark Tremblay, Andreia Pelegrini, Roberto Jeronimo dos Santos Silva, Antonio Cesar Cabral de Oliveira, and Edio Luiz Petroski

Purpose:

Criterion-referenced cut-points for health-related fitness measures are lacking. This study aimed to determine the associations between aerobic fitness and high blood pressure levels (HBP) to determine the cut-points that best predict HBP among adolescents.

Method:

This cross-sectional school-based study with sample of 875 adolescents aged 14–19 years was conducted in southern Brazil. Aerobic fitness was assessed using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (mCAFT). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured by the oscillometric method with a digital sphygmomanometer. Analyses controlled for sociodemographic variables, physical activity, body mass and biological maturation.

Results:

Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves demonstrated that mCAFT measures could discriminate HBP in both sexes (female: AUC = 0.70; male: AUC = 0.63). The cut-points with the best discriminatory power for HBP were 32 mL·kg-1·min-1 for females and 40 mL·kg-1·min-1 for males. Females (OR = 8.4; 95% CI: 2.1, 33.7) and males (OR: 2.5; CI 95%: 1.2, 5.2) with low aerobic fitness levels were more likely to have HBP.

Conclusion:

mCAFT measures are inversely associated with BP and cut-points from ROC analyses have good discriminatory power for HBP.

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Aerobic Fitness and Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents Living with HIV

Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de Lima, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Kelly Samara da Silva, Andreia Pelegrini, Isabela de Carlos Back, and Edio Luiz Petroski

Purpose:

To examine aerobic fitness, total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and also patterns in terms of MVPA between children and adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and controls, and to determine whether differences, if any, are associated with HIV, sex and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

Method:

A cross-sectional analysis was carried out with 130 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 15 years, divided into two groups (HIV group= 65 patients, control group= 65 healthy participants). Total MVPA was measured by accelerometers and 5 and 10-min bouts were estimated. The peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) was measured by breath-by-breath respiratory exchange in an incremental cycle ergometer test.

Results:

HIV-positive participants had lower peak VO2 (39.2 ± 6.8 vs. 44.5 ± 9.1 ml.kg-1min-1), lower bouts of MVPA of 5-min (19.7 ± 16.6 vs. 26.6 ± 23.5) and 10-min (3.6 ± 3.9 vs. 5.8 ± 7.2), but similar total MVPA (49.5 ± 28.9 vs. 49.1 ± 30.6 min.day-1). HIV infection in untreated, nonprotease inhibitors (PI)- based HAART and PI-based HAART patients was associated with lower 8.5 (95%CI= 12.5–4.6), 7.1 (95%CI= 10.6–3.6) and 4.5 (95%CI= 7.0–2.0) ml.kg-1min-1 of peak VO2.

Conclusion:

Children and adolescents with HIV demonstrated lower aerobic fitness compared with the controls and the absence of HAART may increase peak VO2 impairment. Lower bouts of MVPA were also observed in HIV group despite the similar values of total MVPA of controls.

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Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children: Validity and Cut-Points to Identify Sufficient Levels of Moderate- to Vigorous-Intensity Physical Activity Among Children and Adolescents Diagnosed With HIV

João Antônio Chula de Castro, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de Lima, Richard Larouche, Mark S. Tremblay, and Diego Augusto Santos Silva

Purpose: To investigate the validity of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) to assess the moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) level of children and adolescents diagnosed with HIV and propose cut-points, with accelerometer measures as the reference method. Method: Children and adolescents, aged 8–14 years (mean age = 12.21 y, SD = 2.09), diagnosed with HIV by vertical transmission, participated in the study. MVPA was investigated through the PAQ-C and triaxial accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+). Receiver operating characteristic curve and sensitivity and specificity values were used to identify a cut-point for PAQ-C to distinguish participants meeting MVPA guidelines. Results: Fifty-six children and adolescents participated in the study. Among those, 16 met MVPA guidelines. The PAQ-C score was significantly related to accelerometry-derived MVPA (ρ = .506, P < .001). The PAQ-C score cut-point of 2.151 (sensitivity = 0.625, specificity = 0.875) was able to discriminate between those who met MVPA guidelines and those that did not (area under the curve = 0.751, 95% confidence interval, 0.616–0.886). Conclusion: The PAQ-C was useful to investigate MVPA among children and adolescents diagnosed with HIV and to identify those who meet MVPA guidelines.