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Graduate-Level Professional Preparation for Athletic Directors

Jacquelyn Cuneen

The purpose of this research was to design a curriculum for graduate-level preparation of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I and II athletic directors. A survey instrument, consisting of a composite of 41 courses and based on R. Hay's model, Proposed Sports Management Curriculum and Related Strategies, was mailed to the full population of NCAA Division I and II athletic directors (N=569). A total of 307 completed surveys were returned from directors of men's, women's and merged athletic departments. Respondents rated each course using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from not important (1) to essential (5). There were 17 courses that were rated very important according to the acceptance criterion of a mean of 3.5 or greater. Results of a 2 × 3 (Division × Program type) factorial ANOVA, with alpha adjusted from .05 to .001 by Bonferroni's contrasting procedure, indicated that there were no differences in determined levels of course importance. It was concluded that a graduate curriculum to prepare a collegiate director of athletics should be implemented through the collaborative effort of an interdisciplinary faculty and that the program should culminate with a doctoral degree.

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Managing Program Excellence during Our Transition from Potential to Merit

Jacquelyn Cuneen

Sport management was acknowledged early in its formative years as an academic area with great potential for success in the academy. Due largely to the efforts of members of the North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM), sport management quickly became entrenched in academe and is starting to be recognized as an academic area of merit. It is important to manage our overall program excellence as we move from “potential” to “merit” if sport management is to thrive as an academic discipline and profession. It is particularly important to mange our merit since our transition phase occurs amidst many changes and challenges (e.g., the student as consumer; under-representation of National Association for Sport and Physical Education/NASSM Approved Programs; under-recognition of sport management teaching excellence, and diminishing service roles and interests within industry and academe). The purpose of this essay is to posit approaches through which sport management’s educational programs might maintain their well-earned meritorious reputations amid shifting academic and social cultures. This essay is the text of the 2003 Dr. Earle F. Zeigler Lecture presented on May 30 at the 18th Annual Meeting of NASSM in Ithaca, New York.

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Sport in the Third Millennium: A Retrospective and Perspective on 1990s and 2000-Era Sport

Jacquelyn Cuneen and Ray Schneider

Sports, Inc., a popular 1980s-era sport business weekly, addressed eight elements of sports business/management in a January 2,1989 issue entitled “Sports in the 90's: The Spiral Goes On.” The Sports, Inc. issue provided selected writers a forum in which to disseminate their practical forecasts for 1990s sport enterprise. This special issue of the Journal of Sport Management provides established and/or rising scholars with a forum to reflect on several of Sports, Inc.'s predictions and share their own scholarly assessments of sport's past and current business and managerial status.

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Should We Serve Sport Management Practice or Sport Management Education? A Response to Weese’s Perspective

Jacquelyn Cuneen and Janet B. Parks

In the September, 1995 issue of the Journal of Sport Management, W. James Weese suggested that NASSM should develop a more practical focus and philosophy in order to better serve sport management practitioners. He made several recommendations regarding future directions for NASSM and the Journal of Sport Management (JSM) designed to pursue that goal. We respectfully challenge Weese's position, arguing that the primary goal of NASSM and JSM should be to support and fortify the scholarship produced by the sport management professoriate, with the concomitant goal of having an impact on the way sport is managed. We suggest that NASSM and JSM have naturally evolved to protect and enhance sport management education. In the process, they have become eminent providers of continuing education and currently useful research to the sport management professoriate, student-scholars, and practitioners who seek a symbiotic relationship with the academy.

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Gender Portrayals in Sports Illustrated for Kids Advertisements: A Content Analysis of Prominent and Supporting Models

Jacquelyn Cuneen and M. Joy Sidwell

Gender portrayals in sport-related advertising generally reinforce institutionalized sexism and culturally defined sex-role behaviors. Gender-defining messages in advertising photographs may have an especially profound impact on children because children understand meanings in pictures before they understand meanings in text. The purpose of this study was to analyze gender portrayals contained in advertisements appearing in Sports Illustrated for Kids (SIK) over a 6-year period. Advertisements were coded to determine (a) the total number of advertisements featuring females and males, (b) genders represented as prominent or supporting in advertising portrayals, and (c) gender portrayals in advertisement activities and product types. Content analysis revealed that girls and women were drastically underrepresented as models in SIK advertising and that distinct gender roles were sustained by depicting males in nearly all types of activities and products. Conventional stereotypical relationships between sport and gender were represented in the majority of SIK advertisements.

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Effect of Applicant Gender on Rating and Selection of Undergraduate Sport Management Interns

Jacquelyn Cuneen and M. Joy Sidwell

This study assessed gender effect in rating/selection of undergraduate sport management interns. Abridged resumés of six fictitious interns were mailed to persons who interview/select students for internships within major league baseball, professional basketball, and football (TV = 52; 64%). A 1 = weak to 7 = strong continuum was used to collect ratings to determine if gender biases disfavoring females existed in rating/selection. Respondents also selected one potential intern from the pool. Chi-square indicated no significant gender differences in selection. Repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant gender/status effect related to lower qualified intern candidates. Conclusions were that candidates' qualifications and experiences may overshadow discriminatory tendencies, but when females and males are equally qualified, gender biases may favor males' credentials.

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Sport Management Digest

Dianna P. Gray, Frank Ashley, Jacquelyn Cuneen, Marlene Mawson, and Jim Weese