The purpose of this study was to formulate a predictive equation to discriminate males from females using static and dynamic lower extremity (LE) alignments. Twenty-four healthy adults volunteered to participate. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to assess the kinematics of the right hip and knee during two functional tasks. Six measures of static LE alignment were also performed. Statistical comparisons were made between males and females for all variables. Static and dynamic variables that were significantly different by sex were entered into separate discriminant analyses for each task. The resulting equations were each able to correctly predict 87% of the subjects by sex. Fifty-eight percent and 55% of the variance was explained by sex for the vertical jump and plant & jump, respectively. The frontal plane hip angle was the best predictor of sex for both tasks. While there were statistically significant differences between the sexes for static measures of LE alignment, kinematic measures were better at discriminating between sexes.
Sex Differences and Discriminative Value of Lower Extremity Alignments and Kinematics during Two Functional Tasks
Jennifer M. Medina McKeon, Craig R. Denegar, and Jay Hertel
Development of the Self-Efficacy of Balance Scale (SEBS) for Young, Active Individuals
Carrie S. Baker, Jennifer M. Medina McKeon, and Ellen L. Usher
Self-efficacy of balance, a psychological characteristic, may provide information regarding psychological risk factors for lower-extremity injury. Validated instruments to assess self-efficacy of balance do not currently exist. The objective of this study was to determine the face and content validity of the Self-Efficacy of Balance Scale (SEBS) for an adolescent population, as well as content validity, construct and convergent validity of the overall instrument. A series of panelists (n = 11) assessed proposed items for face and content validity for self-efficacy of balance. Construct and convergent validity were assessed with active college individuals (n = 74) and female high school basketball athletes (n = 57). Original items were revised to 21 items. Panelists validated both face and content validity of the SEBS. All items were assessed to have the construct of self-efficacy. Evidence of convergent validity supported the proposed construct of self-efficacy, and was found to be relevant to the physical functioning of a young, active population.