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  • Author: Jo-Ana D. Chase x
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Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Primary Care-Based Physical Activity Interventions Among Older Adults

Jennifer A. Otmanowski and Jo-Ana D. Chase

The purpose of this research is to identify the effectiveness of primary care-based interventions designed to increase older adults’ physical activity (PA). Primary care was defined as a patient’s main source of health care. Standardized mean difference effect size (ES) was calculated related to changes in PA levels in adults’ ≥65. Moderator analysis was performed to explore the relationship between participant characteristics, interventions, interventionists, and ES. Overall mean ES 0.27 (95% confidence interval [0.15, 0.39], p < .01) was calculated for 25 two-group comparisons involving 4,685 total participants with a mean age of 75.08. There was little evidence to support counseling over exercise referrals. The use of theory or a pedometer did not modify the ES. PA interventions delivered in primary care are effective and can be delivered by other health-care providers working with the primary provider. Many different behavior change strategies may be used to promote PA.

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Physical Activity Intervention Effects on Physical Function Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Jo-Ana D. Chase, Lorraine J. Phillips, and Marybeth Brown

The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effects of supervised resistance and/or aerobic training physical activity interventions on performance-based measures of physical functioning among community-dwelling older adults, and to identify factors impacting intervention effectiveness. Diverse search strategies were used to identify eligible studies. Standardized mean difference effect sizes (d, ES) were synthesized using a random effects model. Moderator analyses were conducted using subgroup analyses and meta-regression. Twenty-eight studies were included. Moderator analyses were limited by inconsistent reporting of sample and intervention characteristics. The overall mean ES was 0.45 (k = 38, p ≤ .01), representing a clinically meaningful reduction of 0.92 s in the Timed Up and Go for treatment versus control. More minutes per week (p < .01) and longer intervention session duration (p < .01) were associated with larger effects. Interventions were especially effective among frail participants (d = 1.09). Future research should clearly describe sample and intervention characteristics and incorporate frail populations.